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MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES KULDEEP MATHUR M.B.A. JIWAJI UNIVERSITY GWALIOR

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  • MOTIVATING EMPLOYEESKULDEEP MATHURM.B.A. JIWAJI UNIVERSITY GWALIOR

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  • The willingness to act or behave is called Motivation. This is what the team leader or organizational leaders try to leverage for generation of optimum motivationThe process of arousing & sustaining goal directed behavior.While working a variety of behaviors are observed some are desirable and some are undesirable or below expectation. In both these behavior are reflected as motivation or

    de-motivation.Individuals also differ in terms of intensity of their behavior. Some are high achieving behavior and some are low. Behavior is function of strength of need .Motivation is a personalized phenomenon which is influenced by situational characteristics. By change of situational characteristics or by bringing corrective interventions you can change the behavior.

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  • Therefore it is very important to understand some of the concepts of motivation for leaders and managers.Motivation is derived from Latin word Movers means to move. Luthans-it is a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiencies or needs that activates behavior or desire that is aimed at goal. Need is the underline force behind motivation which increases or decreases depending on the intensity or importance of the need.

  • All living beings - work to satisfy their needs.Animal work for their survival whereas human beings work for their survival as well as some higher-order needs.Human beings posses additional power which we call Viveka i.e. Power of Discrimination and Power of Reasoning etc. The use of Viveka (individual discretion) in all our decision making and also ensuring that our actions are Preyas (pleasant) & Shreyas (lastingly beneficial to all concerned). The Geeta is a treatise on motivation-KarmayogHanuman in the RamayanaEvery human being has infinite power, and unlimited reservoir of potential energy that power has to be ignited, stimulated, inspired for getting best out of it.

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  • The quest for identifying the igniting factor is on---different motives lead to different pattern of behaviorSome people want work for money, others want power, achievement and affiliation. They are capable of taking initiative, and assuming responsibilities provided supportive environment is created. Such managers trust their employees and allow them self control.Full potential can be taped only when the following four parts of human nature are touched 1.For body-the need for survival-financial, prosperity, security etc. 2.For mind-growth and development.3.For heart-love and relationship.4.For sprit-integrity, contribution, service to society.

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  • A motivator ceases to be motivator if it is easily available or available in abundance & available to all.A satisfied need is not a motivator Motivation is like fire- unless you keep adding fuel to it, it dies. Just like exercise and food dont last long, neither does motivation. However, if the source of motivation is belief in inner values, it becomes long lasting.

  • Motivation is the process by which behavior is energized and directed towards some goal. Security, affiliation, esteem, independence, achievements, power and psychological needs are all potentially relevant influences on the behavior in an organizational setting.Fear as Motivator-Negative/Positive motivation Money as Motivator Money will buy

    Amusements but not happiness.A bed but not sleepBooks but not wisdom.A clock but not more time.Companions but not friendsFood but not appetiteA house but not a homeMedicine but not healthA ring but not a marriage.

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  • we generally divide motivation into two partsIntrinsic

    A persons internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.

    The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart. (Helen Keller)Extrinsic

    Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. Internal motivation Sigmud Freud Delving into the unconscious to understand mans motives and desires-Satisfaction needs, wants, desire etc.External motivation-To bring out internal motivation by creating atmosphere-policy, working conditions etc-----positive bring them out negative kill them

    Motivation Theories

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  • .Motivation Theories Content Theories

    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Herzbergs 2- Factor TheoryMc Clellands 3-Modes for SuccessAlderfers 3- Level Hierarchy (ERG)

    Physiological Safety & Security Belonging Esteem Self ActualizationHygiene Factors Motivator Factors Need for achievement Need for Affiliation nAffNeed forAchievement N Ach Need for Power N Pow Existence (E)Relatedness(R)Growth (G)

  • Process Theory Assists in explaining & Promoting understand of human behaviour, why, How? Vrooms Expectancy Theory

    M= E x U x I = Efforts ValenceOutcomePerceived probability of successPerceived value of rewardProbability of receipt of reward

  • Equity Theory When employees feel that what they give (inputs) and they receive (outcomes) is similar to what others are giving and receiving, equity exists. Employee make comparisons to determine equity or fairness in various work situations. Equity Theory When . Locke's Goal Achievement Theory

    Setting Measurable, Specific & Acceptable GoalsRecognizing Both Level of Difficult and attainment Kinds & Quality of Behavior to Achieve Goals (s)

    Understanding Requirements

  • Schien-Composite theory Rational economic man Social man Self- actualizing man Complex manAssumption Set 1: People are motivated by materials reward Assumption Set II : People motivated by social rewards Assumption Set III : People are motivated by intrinsic rewards

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  • The Complexity of People .

    Reward Type Organization Emergent SuperiorIndividual GroupSelf1 Financial Wages XFringe Benefits X

    2. InterpersonalStatus.. XXXRecognition.. X XXFriendship .. XXX

    3. Intrinsic to workCompletion. (X) (X)XAchievement (X) (X)XEnergy expenditure (X)(X)X

    4. Development Skill Acquisition (X)X

    Personal growth (X) (X) XX = Direct source X = Indirect source Source : Adapted from Porter (1973).

  • PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATIONP = Skill + will + cultureNeed Motivation Efforts Performance - Satisfaction STEPS IN DESIGNING MOTIVATION

    Identification of performance work-related behaviors: (Competencies) The manager must decide what specific behavior is to be eliminated or stimulated. Everything an employee does on his or her job is not equally important in terms of performance outcomes.

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  • Challenge Goal difficulty Goal clarity Self-efficacy Mediators DirectionEffortPersistence Task Strategy PerformanceRewards Satisfaction Moderators Ability Goal commitment Feedback Task Complexity ConsequencesModel of Goal Setting

  • 2.Specify the behavior in observable, measurable terms: The next step, is to identify the critical behaviors that make a significant impact on the employees job performance. The manager must define what is to be changed and how it is to be measured.

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  • 3.Identify the reinforces: The manager must examine those reinforces that appear to be common to most people, as well as individual reinforces.4.Identification of behavioral contingencies: The next step is to perform a functional analysis to identify the behavioral contingencies or consequences of performance. The manager must design the system, which allows the desired reinforcements to be made contingent upon the desired behavioral being emitted. This tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences currently maintaining it.

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  • 5.Insure that there is a method for applying the contingency relationship: The manager is ready to develop and implement an intervention strategy to strengthen desirable performance behaviors and weaken undesirable behaviors. If the manager has specified a contingency relationship between behaviors and rewards, then there must be some means of making sure that when the desired behavior is emitted, the reward will follow. For example, if a professor wishes to reward students specifically for coming to class, then there must be a system of marking attendance.

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  • Feedback to the Employee: In this step the manager must outline specifically what the employee is doing right and wrong, what the rewards are and how they will be applied, and the nature of the contingency relationship.Apply the system fairly and consistency: Once the system is established, it should be maintained in a consistent manner. A good example of this is rate cutting in piecework systems. It is frustrating to employees to have the rules changed on them midway through the systems. It is for this reason that may piecework incentive systems are ineffective.

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  • Reward Systems for High PerformanceHigh Performance Work System The ability of rewards to motivate individuals or a team to high performance depends on six factors.Availability. For rewards to reinforce desired performance, they must be available. Too little of a desired reward is no reward at all. For example, pay increase that are below minimally accepted standards may actually produce negative consequences, including theft, falsifying records, and the like Timeliness : Like performance feedback, rewards should be given in a timely manner. A rewards motivating potential is reduced to the extent that it is separated in time from the performance it is intended to reinforce. Performance contingency : Rewards should be closely linked with particular performances. If a goal is met, the reward is given. The clearer the linkage between performance and rewards, the better able rewards are to motivate desired behavior. Forty percent of employees nationwide believe that there is no linkage between their performance and pay.

  • Durability : Some rewards last longer than others. Intrinsic rewards, such as increased autonomy, challenge, and accountability, tend to last longer than extrinsic rewards, such as pay increases. Equity : Employees; motivation to perform is improved when they believe that the pay policies of their organisation are fir and equitable. Visibility : To promote a reward system, management must ensure that rewards are visible throughout an organisation. Visible rewards, such as assignments to important committees or promotion to a new job, send signals to employees that rewards are available, timely, and based on performance.

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    Reward System Gain sharing programs

    Profit Sharing Programs

    Skill Based pay

    Flexible benefits Strengths

    Rewards employees who reach specified production levels & control costs. Rewards organisational performance

    Rewards employee with higher pay for acquiring new skills

    Tailored to fit individual needs. Limitations

    Formula can be complex, employees must trust management Individuals and teams are not likely to have an impact on overall organisational performance Labour costs increase as employees master more skills. Employee can top out at the highest wage rate. Administrative costs are high and the program is difficult to use with teams.Reward System in High Performance Work Settings

  • .Are there accurate indicators of individual performance? Is the performance of one person independent of others? Are individual performance goals constant? Is the firm unionized? Is pay secrecy important?

    Is the cost accounting system sophisticated? Are employees accustomed to participating in decision making? Will employees accept deferred payments?

    Can managers measure performance objectively? Is employee turnover high? Is there a consensus on work goals?

    Profit sharing programsFlexibility benefit plans

    Skill- based pay Gain sharing programs

    Deciding Among Alternative Reward Systems

  • COMMON MOTIVATIN FACTORS IN AN ORGANIZATIONThese include:Giving recognition and respect.Interesting and challenging job.A Good Listener.Challenging assignment.Opportunity to communicate directly.Extending help whenever requested, but not doing jobs for another which he capable of doing himself.Job enrichment.Opportunity for growth and learning.Independence and empowerment.Clear expectation and creation of excitement.

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  • BARRIERS TO MOTIVATIONThese include:Fear of losing job.Resentment.Boring Job.Loss of faith in the leadership.Tendency to have total obedience from subordinates.Fear of change.Poor interpersonal relations.Performance appraisal system.

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  • BARRIERS TO MOTIVATIONGiving responsibility without authority.Insensitivity to feelings of others.Carrot and stick philosophy.Lack of trust and openness.Bureaucratic structure and empire building.Lack of direction.Lack of self-execution.

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  • Demotivating FactorsUnfair criticism Negative criticismPublic humiliationRewarding the non-performer which can be demotivating for the performer.Failure or fear of failureSuccess which leads to complacenceLack of directionLack of measurable objectivesLow self-esteem

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  • Demotivating FactorsLow self-esteemLack of prioritiesNegative self-talkOffice politicsUnfair treatmentHypocrisyPoor standardsFrequent changeResponsibility without authority.

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  • Some Motivational Management StoriesONCE MORE MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE, MANY TIMESTwo frogs fell into a shallow well. And their friends started shouting instructions, do this and do that.After a while the frogs outside the well realised that it was a hopeless case. And they suggested them to await their death. One frog accepted his fate and did nothing. And the other frog kept on jumping. The frogs outside the well started shouting again and again and gestured to the second frog to give up.After a while the second frog gave himself a big push and he was finally out of the well.There was a lot of excitement and happiness. And the frogs asked the second frog why he kept on jumping when they were shouting instructions to give up, and the second frog proudly replied, I am deaf, I did not hear you but I saw you as if you were encouraging me.Friends, listen to many people and every opinion but do what you can do, Become a CAN DO person.

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  • What Will People Say, Abraham Lincoln.There was one man in this world who believed in all that has been said above, and who has become a Lighthouse for millions of stressful people who followed him. His name was Abraham Lincoln. His resume is as follows:Age 22, failed in businessAge 23, ran for legislature and was defeatedAge 24, failed again in businessAge 25, elected to legislature.Age 26, sweetheart died.Age 27, had a nervous breakdown.Age 29, defeated for speaker.Age 31, defeated for elector.Age 34, defeated for Congress.Age 37, elected to Congress.Age 39, defeated for Congress.Age 46, defeated for Senate.Age 47, defeated for vice president.Age 49, defeated for Senate.Age 51, elected President of the United States of America.

    Abraham Lincoln did not bother what people said about him when he failed. Even when he became the President, people still criticised him but instead of becoming stressful, he expressed this deathless line, No man is good enough to be President, but someone has to be.

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  • Use Your Think Time To Throw Away Your StressTwo monks were traveling in the rain, the mud sloshing under their feet. As they passed a rivulet crossing they saw a beautiful Giesha girl, finely dressed, unable to cross because of the mud. Without a word, the older monk simply picked up the woman and carried her to the other side.The younger monk was seemingly agitated for the rest of their journey, and could not contain himself once they reached their destination. The younger monk exploded at the older monk, How could you, a monk, even consider holding a woman in your arms, much less a young and beautiful one. It is against our teachings. It is in very bad taste.I put her down at the roadside, said the older monk. Are you still carrying her?Now, dont we all carry her for years and decades together and become stressful? Why not start having self-audit sessions and throw thousands of Hers into the dustbin?

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  • Look Out To Do A Good Deed EverydayThere was a poor Scottish farmer, his name was Fleming. One day while trying to make a living for his family, he heard a cry for help coming from a nearby bog (an area of land which is wet and muddy). He dropped his tools and ran to the bog. There mired to his waist in black muck, was a terrified boy, screaming and struggling to free himself. Farmer Fleming saved the lad from what could have been a slow and terrifying death.The next day, a fancy carriage pulled up to the Scotsmans sparse surroundings. An elegantly dressed noble man stepped out and introduced himself as the father of the boy farmer Fleming had saved. I want to repay you, said the noble man. You saved my sons life.No, I can not accept payment for what I did, the Scottish farmer replied, waving off the offer. At that moment, the farmers own son came to the door of the family hovel. Is that your son? the noble man asked.Yes, the farmer replied proudly.I will make you a deal.

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  • Let me provide him with the level of education my own son will enjoy. If the lad is anything like his father, he will no doubt grow to be a man we both will be proud of. And that he did.Farmer Flemings son attended the very best schools and in time, he graduated from St. Marys Hospital Medical school in London and went on to become known throughout the world as the noted Sir Alexander Fleming, the discover of Penicillin. Years afterward, the same noblemans son who was saved from the bog was stricken with Pneumonia. What saved his life this time? Penicillin.The name of the noble man? Lord Randolph Churchill! His sons name? Sir Win-Ston Churchill!

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  • One day a farmer's donkey fell down into a well. The animal cried piteously for hours as the farmer tried to figure out what to do. Finally he decided the animal was old and the well needed to be covered up anyway it just wasn't worth it to retrieve the donkey. He invited all his neighbors to come over and help him. They all grabbed a shovel and begin to shovel dirt into the well. At first, the donkey realized what was happening and cried horribly. Then, to everyone's amazement he quieted down. A few shovel loads later, the farmer finally looked down the well and was astonished at what he saw. With every shovel of dirt that fell on his back, the donkey was doing some thing amazing. He would shake it off and take a step up. As the farmer's neighbors continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, he would shake it off and take a step up. Pretty soon, everyone was amazed as the donkey stepped up over the edge of the well and totted off ! Life is going to shovel dirt on you, all kinds of dirt. The trick is too not to get bogged down by it. We can get out of the deepest wells by not stopping. And by never giving up! Shake it off and take a step up !

    The Donkey & Farmer

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