Models of teaching

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These are the models of teaching


<ul><li> 1. Concepts:Information Processing ModelBehavioural ModelSocial Model Personal Model</li></ul> <p> 2. What is Teaching Model?A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies), to design instructional materials, and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settingsbased on Joyce and Weil (1980). 3. Aim of TM: To produce effective teaching.Figure 1.1: Glasers Teaching Model 4. Formulate aFunction of complete &amp; Teaching perfect teachingscheme.Model Enable teachers toanalyse &amp; evaluate its strengths &amp;Provide guidance toplanners &amp; teachers weaknesses so as to As basic plan &amp; implement to enable them toplan &amp; carry out theguidance forappropriate follow-upteaching processteachers for actions effectively. reflection during feedback session. 5. MODELS OF TEACHING SOCIAL PERSONALBEHAVIOURINFORMATION PROCESS 6. Information Processing Model 7. Types of Information Processing ModelInformation- Inquiry Teaching The ExpositoryProcessing Model ofGagnes InformationModel Teaching ModelMemoryProcessing Model Scientific InquiryModelSocial Inquiry Model Juris-PrudentialInquiry Model Suchmans InquiryModel 8. What do OUR MEMORY HAVE?Sensory MemoryHold a large amount of informationCompartment in a duration just enough for asmall portion to be selected forlonger storage.Short-term Memory Capacity is limited.Storage duration is brief (unlessassisted with rehearsal)Long-term MemoryA very large storage capacity(unlimited).Stored longer. 9. Information-Processing Model of MemoryFigure 1.2: Atkinson &amp; Shiffrins Model of MemoryStorage (1971) 10. Information-Processing Model of Memory IncominginformationSensory memoryShort-term Long-term(sensory input) pass through: Sensory Retains informationCan hold for only a fraction of unrehearseda second butinformation for about enough to select the 20 30 seconds.portion of Information encodedmay last forinformation thatShort-term memoryweeks, months orarrests ones attention. (Theeven years.Information can beinformation thatstored longer if it iscaught onesengaged under attention is selected rehearsal. Long-term memory for longer storage)(Repetition of memorizing). 11. Gagnes Information Processing ModelFigure 1.3: Gagnes Theory of Learning Process 12. Gagnes 8 stages of Learning Process PHASE ACTION RELATED Motivation PhaseExpectancyApprehension PhaseObservation Perception Selection Acquisition PhaseEncoding Prestoring Retention PhaseMemory Retention Recall Phase Recall searching Generalisation PhaseTransferPerformance Phase Response Feedback PhaseReinforcement 13. Important Aspects in Gagnes 8 Phases Learning readiness Motivation Perception Conceptualization Memorizing Forgetting Learning transfer 14. How it works? Process begins from extrinsic @ intrinsic motivation toperceive stimuli from environment. New information recorded in short-term memory. Information will be processed by relating storedinformation in long-term memory. New information is reinforced, retained &amp; applied whenrequired. 15. Expository Teaching Model Referred as explicit explanation in details of certainfacts. A way of presentation of information @ learningcontents to pupils directly. Presenting learning materials byexplanation, narration or demonstration. Suitably use to teach certain concept and skill duringthe beginning of the lesson. 16. ..continue.. Principle and concept are explainedverbally, as all the facts are written onthe board, showed on the screen. Time saving: Enables teacher to finish allrelated concepts in a shorter period &amp;pupils merely listen quietly. More to a lecturing method. (Lesseffective for primary schools). 17. Inquiry Teaching Model Scientific Inquiry Model:Used to study principles, phenomena &amp; characteristics of scientific knowledge.Research process based on 5 stages: Identify the problem. Ascertain relevant information. Determine hypothesis. Testing hypothesis. Evaluate, interpret, infer &amp; conclude. 18. Social Inquiry Model: Used to study topics related to social &amp; humanity aspects. Based on activities such as observation, interview, @ questionnaire. Emphasizes on social interaction process. 6 steps: Formulation of problem by teacher. Formulation of hypothesis by pupils. Define hypothesis. Discuss &amp; confirm validity of the hypothesis. Collect &amp; analyse evidences for the hypothesis. Interpret &amp; derive inference @ conclusion. 19. Juris-prudential Inquiry Model: Used to look for reality &amp; accuracy in current issues (learning science is more useful than learning arts). Concerns with science &amp; philosophy of human law. Based on activities, discussions and debates. Two types: Guided inquiry: Teacher guides pupils to carry out the wholediscussion process. Open Inquiry: No guidelines given. Students have to do thediscussion themselves. 20. Suchmans Inquiry Model: Based on assumption that strategies used by scientists can be used as a teaching model especially in the study of science. Procedures: Teacher determines &amp; indicates the problem. Teacher explains the inquiry process to solve the previous problem. Students are guided to form hypothesis, follows by the collection ofrelevant data. Students use collected data to test hypothesis, aim to formulatetheorem, law, principle or theory. Discussion &amp; making inferences. Teacher &amp; students discuss together and analyse. 21. The Importance of Information Processing Model Students are prepared with better equipments andinformation for learning. Students are enforced with good mental exercises throughdifferent methods and approaches. Students are informed of the objectives and learningoutcomes that should be achieved. Help students to remember the information for a longerperiod of time. 22. Behavioural Model 23. Behavioural ModelDirectProgrammedInstructionMastery InstructionModelLearning Model 24. Direct Instruction Model Demonstration: A teaching technique involves the use of a teachers skill to demonstrate @ perform a certain activity in the class. Teacher has a strong control over what is learnt in the classroom, provides feedback, monitoring students, grading work and strict classroom rules &amp; regulations. (Teacher- centered). 25. Mastery learning Refers to a theory &amp; practice of using remedial teaching based onfeedback of pupils performance to assist them to achieve the learningobjectives. Procedures: Determine learning outcomes by planning explicit learning objective (basedon students performance). Teach pupils with effective teaching method &amp; technique (use of suitablelearning materials to suit different learning styles) Evaluate learning result by diagnostic test &amp; summative test (level ofmastering &amp; achievement) Carry out remedial activities for pupils who have not fully mastered certainskills &amp; provide enrichment activities for pupils who have mastered thelesson. 26. Programmed Instruction Model Computer Assisted Instruction (CIA) The application of technology &amp; computer system inteaching. Pupils follow designed learning materials in softwarewithout teachers help. Teacher has to facilitate the pupils to have interest inmanipulating computer. 27. Personal Model 28. Personal Model Non-directive Teaching Model Developing Positive Self-concepts Project Model Research Project Handicraft Project Educational Visit 29. Non-directive Teaching Model Based on Carl Rogers work, hebelieves that positive humanrelationships enable people togrow. Therefore instruction should bebased on concepts of humanrelations. 30. Phase 1 : Defining the Helping Situation Teacher encourages free expression of feelings.Phases inPhase 2: Exploring the ProblemStudent is encouraged to define problem.Teacher accepts and clarifies feelings.Non-directive Model Phase 3: Developing InsightStudent discusses problem. Teacher supports student.Phase 4: Planning and Decision MakingStudent plans initial decision making.Teacher clarifies possible decision.Phase 5: IntegrationStudent gains further insight and Teacher is supportive.develops more positive actions.Action Outside the InterviewStudent initiates positive actions. 31. The Importance of Non-directive Teaching Model Teacher helps students to explore new ideas. Students have freedom to making decisions and choices. Teacher and students are partners in learning. Nurtures and moulds students to be the way they are. Encourages students to think and reflect their uncertainfeelings and become better and be positive. 32. Developing Positive Self-concepts Appreciate the abilities and talents onepossesses. Positive self-concepts evolves with themoral values that should be emphasisedamong students. Activities that help: Group/IndividualPresentation, musical performances,stage performances. 33. The Importance of Positive Self-concepts Gain knowledge and experiences byenhancing their interests in learningthrough self-concepts. Teacher shows positive approachesand optimistic reinforcements. Boost their confidence. Provide opportunities for students toexpress their ideas and listen toothers opinions. 34. Project Model Based on the belief that learning would beeffective if pupils are interested and readyto carry out learning activities. Examples of Project Model: Research Project. Handicraft Project. Educational Visit. 35. 1. Research Project (Principles) Teacher determines suitable researchtopic in accordance to the pupilsexperience, ability and interest. Aims and procedures must be determinedfirst and pupils are informed about this. Teacher prepares relevant materials(check list, questions to be answered, etc.)to facilitate pupils. 36. Continued Research should be carried out safely&amp; every pupil should actively involve ingroup activities. Teacher supervises and providesguidance to pupils. Teacher discusses the outcomes ofresearch &amp; evaluation should beconducted after research iscompleted. 37. 2. Handicraft Project (Principles) Planning of the project is based on pupilsinterest and ability. Prepare sufficient materials. Explain procedure precisely. Show examples of correct ways to do theproject. Time period is required! Discussion is carried out to assess the workwhen it is done. Display good quality work to the otherstudents. 38. 3. Educational Visit (Principles) Before the Visit: Identify the place of visit. Obtain permission. Arrange for transport. Conduct briefing session regarding safety, precautions, behaviours, aims of visit and regulations. Prepare sufficient equipments. 39. .continued During the Visit: Divide pupils into several small groups. Every pupil should actively involve. Watch out for pupils safety. Give appropriate response to pupils inquiry. After the Visit: Hold discussion session with pupils regarding their observations. Plan follow-up activity (making model, draw plan or model, display things) 40. The Importance of Project Model Students able to relate their previous experiences to whatthey are studying. Able to understand objectives of the projects before and afterlesson. Fun activities that attract students interests in learning more&amp; apply what they have learnt. Moral values are applied. Theories, facts &amp; hypotheses are brought into practices (I do,I remember &amp; understand). Co-operations among students. Direct experiences &amp; additional knowledge. 41. SocialModel 42. Social Model Model of Group Teaching &amp; Co-operativeLearning Simulation ModelSociodramaRole play 43. Uses group inquiry andproblem-solving strategiesSOCIAL MODELEncourages assimilation and Relies on the students understanding of thepersonal and social learners values 44. Ways of Teaching GROUP TEACHINGAND CO-OPERATIVE SIMULATIONLEARNINGINFORMAL FORMAL STUDYLEARNINGLEARNING ROLE-PLAY SOCIODRAMA TEAMSGROUPGROUP 45. ROLE-PLAY Emphasize the social Role-playing is a teaching nature of learningstrategy that fits within thesocial family models stimulate students bothsocially and intellectually-Joyce and Weil, 2000- Improves interpersonal skills andenhances communication 46. ROLE-PLAYFOUR STAGES1. Preparation and explanation of the activity by the teacher 2. Student preparation of the activity3. The role-playing 4. The discussion after the role-playing activities 47. SOCIODRAMA More like an acting activityBased on a story which reflects a certain situationinvolving conflicting issue, for example, Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat Script should be prepared earlierNext 48. ADVANTAGESHelps them to become aware of the typical ways they solve problemsIncreases both social and personal awarenessPromote acceptance, cooperation in classroom Back 49. Informal learning groupBasicallytemporary within a single class session 50. Formal learning groupBeing formed to complete a specific tasks, such asto carry a project, performing a lab experiment, etc 51. Study Teams Long-termgroups with a stablemembership 52. ELEMENTS Face-to-face PositiveInteractionInterdependenceIndividual &amp; Group Group ProcessingAccountabilityInterpersonal &amp; Small- group Skills 53. Emphasize the worth of cooperative learning The Importance of Social ModelIncorporate the Promote social skills includingcollective energy of theself- group discipline, negotiation, democrac y, etc. 54. TeachingApproaches 55. ApproachesInductiveDeductive 56. Inductive ApproachCollecting Analysing Interpreting MakingConclusionConceptgeneralisation 57. Example of Inductive Approach 58. Deductive Approach General Rule Specific ExamplePractice 59. Examples of Deductive Approach 60. Anyquestions? Presented by:AileenYohanieca </p>