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  • Slide 1
  • MIDI
  • Slide 2
  • What is MIDI? MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface Some Clarification: MIDI doesnt directly describe musical sound MIDI doesnt directly describe musical sound MIDI is not a language MIDI is not a language It is a data communications protocol It is a data communications protocol
  • Slide 3
  • History of MIDI 1900s: electronic synthesizers developed 1900s: electronic synthesizers developed 1970s: digital synthesizers developed 1970s: digital synthesizers developed Each manufacturer used different design scheme, with their own keyboard / panel Each manufacturer used different design scheme, with their own keyboard / panel At that time, synthesizers were monophonic At that time, synthesizers were monophonic With a particular input device, each player can only run one or two synthesizers at the same time With a particular input device, each player can only run one or two synthesizers at the same time To use a wide range of synthesized sounds, many players were needed To use a wide range of synthesized sounds, many players were needed
  • Slide 4
  • History of MIDI People decided to do something about it. People decided to do something about it. 1981, 3 synthesizer companies 1981, 3 synthesizer companies Sequential Circuits Sequential Circuits Roland Roland Oberheim Electronics Oberheim Electronics met in to start to discuss the issue 1982, synthesizer companies such as Yamaha, Korg, Kawai joined. 1982, synthesizer companies such as Yamaha, Korg, Kawai joined. 1983, full MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification released 1983, full MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification released It standardized the control signal and inter-machine communication between synthesizer devices It standardized the control signal and inter-machine communication between synthesizer devices The last official edition incorporated everything through 1996 (still 1.0, version 96.1)-- an updated edition is expected in 2004 The last official edition incorporated everything through 1996 (still 1.0, version 96.1)-- an updated edition is expected in 2004
  • Slide 5
  • MIDI Ports It use a five-pin DIN connector It use a five-pin DIN connector Inexpensive and readily available Inexpensive and readily available Only 3 pins among 5 are used until now Only 3 pins among 5 are used until now Both ends of MIDI line are the same. Both ends of MIDI line are the same.
  • Slide 6
  • MIDI Ports Serial transfer, data are sent bit by bit Serial transfer, data are sent bit by bitHence: - transmission rate is slow at only 31,250 bits/sec. - Too slow to transmit samples in real-time - have to do off-line sample dump
  • Slide 7
  • MIDI Interface MIDI In MIDI data enters each item of MIDI equipment through the MIDI In port. MIDI data enters each item of MIDI equipment through the MIDI In port. MIDI Out All the MIDI data generated by individual pieces of equipment are sent out through the MIDI Out port. All the MIDI data generated by individual pieces of equipment are sent out through the MIDI Out port. A common error for MIDI setup is: inverted connection of MIDI IN/OUT MIDI Thru These are used to re-transmit all information received at the MIDI In port using the MIDI Thru port connections. These are used to re-transmit all information received at the MIDI In port using the MIDI Thru port connections. Often these ports are used to create a chain of connected devices in a single MIDI data path, called a 'daisy chain'. Often these ports are used to create a chain of connected devices in a single MIDI data path, called a 'daisy chain'.
  • Slide 8
  • Limitations of MIDI 1. Slow -- Serial transfer When there have too much continuous data transfer (e.g. a lot of control data) MIDI choke When there have too much continuous data transfer (e.g. a lot of control data) MIDI choke Solution: can be solved by EVENT FILTERING Solution: can be solved by EVENT FILTERING e.g., discard less important messages (esp., system exclusive messages) e.g., discard less important messages (esp., system exclusive messages)
  • Slide 9
  • Limitations of MIDI 2. Slow -- MIDI is only control information (like Csound score), and time is needed to synthesize the sound computation time MIDI lag computation time MIDI lag Solution: users have to avoid using patch (instrument) which uses a lot of memory Solution: users have to avoid using patch (instrument) which uses a lot of memory e.g. Cymbal in channel 10 of Nokia Cellular phone e.g. Cymbal in channel 10 of Nokia Cellular phone
  • Slide 10
  • Limitations of MIDI 3. Sound quality varies It depends on which synthesizer you use It depends on which synthesizer you useSolution: users have to judge by ear, to see which sound is good users have to judge by ear, to see which sound is good Standardized with General MIDI (GM) (discussed later) Standardized with General MIDI (GM) (discussed later)
  • Slide 11
  • Limitations of MIDI 3. Sound quality varies the size of MIDI file is very small! the size of MIDI file is very small! e.g. : e.g. : a three minutes wav file, 48kHz, stereo: a three minutes wav file, 48kHz, stereo: size of 40MB size of 40MB a three minutes MIDI file, with 10 channels: a three minutes MIDI file, with 10 channels: size of 40kb size of 40kb It is because MIDI file doesnt actually contain audio data, but only control information (like Csound score) It is because MIDI file doesnt actually contain audio data, but only control information (like Csound score)
  • Slide 12
  • MIDI Transmission Protocol Each message begin with ONE start bit (logical 0) Each message begin with ONE start bit (logical 0) Then followed by EIGHT message bits Then followed by EIGHT message bits End with ONE stop bit (logical 1) End with ONE stop bit (logical 1) Each 8-bit MIDI message byte, specifies either a status value, or data value Each 8-bit MIDI message byte, specifies either a status value, or data value 10 LST MST
  • Slide 13
  • MIDI message types MIDI Messages Channel Mode Voice System Real Time Common System Exclusive
  • Slide 14
  • MIDI message types 1. channel messages: MIDI channel messages have 4 modes: MIDI channel messages have 4 modes: Mode 1: Omni On + Poly, usually for testing devices Mode 1: Omni On + Poly, usually for testing devices Mode 2: Omni On + Mono, has little purpose Mode 2: Omni On + Mono, has little purpose Mode 3: Omni Off + Poly, for general purpose Mode 3: Omni Off + Poly, for general purpose Mode 4: Omni Off + Mono, for general purpose Mode 4: Omni Off + Mono, for general purpose where: where: i. Omni On/Off: i. Omni On/Off: respond to all messages regardless of their channel respond to all messages regardless of their channel ii. Poly/Mono: ii. Poly/Mono: respond to multiple/single notes per channel respond to multiple/single notes per channel
  • Slide 15
  • MIDI message types 2. channel voice messages Carries the MUSICAL COMPONENT of a piece Carries the MUSICAL COMPONENT of a piece usually has 2 types: usually has 2 types: i. status byte: i. status byte: the first 4 most significant bits identify the message type, the first 4 most significant bits identify the message type, the 4 least significant bits identify which channel is to be affected the 4 least significant bits identify which channel is to be affected ii. data byte: ii. data byte: the most significant bit is 0, indicating a data byte. the most significant bit is 0, indicating a data byte. The rest are data bits The rest are data bits 0ddddddd mmmmcccc
  • Slide 16
  • 1st byte: Status byte 1st byte: Status byte 1001 means note on, cccc is the binary representation of the message channel MIDI message types: channel voice messages a. Note On To start a note, with particular pitch and velocity, on a particular channel To start a note, with particular pitch and velocity, on a particular channel 1001cccc
  • Slide 17
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages a. Note On 2nd byte: Pitch Data byte 2nd byte: Pitch Data byte 0 means it is a data byte 0 means it is a data byte ddddddd is the binary representation of the pitch. (decimal 0-127). ddddddd is the binary representation of the pitch. (decimal 0-127). A particular MIDI note number does not designate a particular pitch. A particular MIDI note number does not designate a particular pitch. But most commonly, for example, for GM, 60 = Middle C (C4), then 59 = B just below middle C (B3), 62 = D just above middle C (D4). But most commonly, for example, for GM, 60 = Middle C (C4), then 59 = B just below middle C (B3), 62 = D just above middle C (D4). 0ddddddd
  • Slide 18
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages a. Note On 3rd byte: Velocity Data byte 3rd byte: Velocity Data byte vvvvvvv is the binary representation of velocity (loudness) of the note (decimal 0- 127). vvvvvvv is the binary representation of velocity (loudness) of the note (decimal 0- 127). The velocity value does not specify a particular loudness. It depends on velocity map of the synthesizer/sampler, but 0 is typically silence and 127 is typically loudest. The velocity value does not specify a particular loudness. It depends on velocity map of the synthesizer/sampler, but 0 is typically silence and 127 is typically loudest. 0vvvvvvv
  • Slide 19
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages b. Note Off To end a note, with particular pitch, on a particular channel To end a note, with particular pitch, on a particular channel Its structure is very similar to Note On, except that the 1st byte (status byte) is 1000cccc. Its structure is very similar to Note On, except that the 1st byte (status byte) is 1000cccc. Note off message will stop a presently playing note of the same pitch. Note off message will stop a presently playing note of the same pitch. The velocity data byte of note off, however, does not mean to end a note with a particular velocity. The velocity data byte of note off, however, does not mean to end a note with a particular velocity. It describes how to release a note instead. It describes how to release a note instead. For example, end velocity = 127, means to release the note immediately. End velocity = 0 means to die away slowly. For example, end velocity = 127, means to release the note immediately. End velocity = 0 means to die away slowly. End velocity is not implemented on many synthesizers End velocity is not implemented on many synthesizers
  • Slide 20
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages c. Program Change Assign particular patch (instrument) to a channel Assign particular patch (instrument) to a channel Usually, synthesizers have assigned program numbers to each patch Usually, synthesizers have assigned program numbers to each patch The manufacturer decides how to assign which number to which patch (GM has a table to standardize this) The manufacturer decides how to assign which number to which patch (GM has a table to standardize this) 1st byte: Status byte 1100cccc 1st byte: Status byte 1100cccc 2nd byte: program number data byte 0ddddddd 2nd byte: program number data byte 0ddddddd
  • Slide 21
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages c. Program Change Some synthesizer have less than 128 patches Some synthesizer have less than 128 patches They will ignore the program number assigned, which are too large They will ignore the program number assigned, which are too large Some synthesizers have more than 128 possible patches. Some synthesizers have more than 128 possible patches. User can use any of the 128 patches at the same time User can use any of the 128 patches at the same time But not more than that 128 patches at the same time But not more than that 128 patches at the same time They can choose a different setting by selecting a different BANK. They can choose a different setting by selecting a different BANK.
  • Slide 22
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages d. Control Change Assigns some effect to the sound in the channel Assigns some effect to the sound in the channel 1st byte: Status byte 1011cccc 1st byte: Status byte 1011cccc 2nd byte: control change type 0ddddddd 2nd byte: control change type 0ddddddd 3rd/4th byte: control change value 0ddddddd 3rd/4th byte: control change value 0ddddddd We can use a different controller hardware to input control changes We can use a different controller hardware to input control changes for example, modulation wheel, foot pedal for example, modulation wheel, foot pedal
  • Slide 23
  • MIDI message types: channel voice messages e. Pitch Bend 1st byte: Status byte 1110cccc 1st byte: Status byte 1110cccc 2nd byte: pitch bend value 2nd byte: pitch bend value (least significant 7 bits) 0ddddddd 3nd byte: pitch bend value 3nd byte: pitch bend value (most significant 7 bits) 0ddddddd data bytes usually of have14 bits of resolution data bytes usually of have14 bits of resolution describes the pitch bend of a played note describes the pitch bend of a played note e.g. while playing a middle C note e.g. while playing a middle C note a Pitch bend message, of data -100 will bend the middle C a bit downward, toward B The amount of bending, depends of different synthesizer settings The amount of bending, depends of different synthesizer settings
  • Slide 24
  • MIDI message types: System messages System messages affect the entire device, regardless of the channel. System messages affect the entire device, regardless of the channel. For system message: For system message: the most significant 4 bits are always 1111, the most significant 4 bits are always 1111, the least significant 4 bits will identify the TYPE of the message. the least significant 4 bits will identify the TYPE of the message. Since system messages affect all channels. Since system messages affect all channels. (No need to use 4 bits to specify which channel is affected.) (No need to use 4 bits to specify which channel is affected.) 1111tttt t = type
  • Slide 25
  • MIDI message types: System messages 1. real-time system messages co-ordinate and synchronize the timing of clock-based MIDI devices co-ordinate and synchronize the timing of clock-based MIDI devices Usually sent at regular intervals, to ensure that every device in a MIDI system marches to the same beat Usually sent at regular intervals, to ensure that every device in a MIDI system marches to the same beat
  • Slide 26
  • MIDI message types: System messages 1. real-time system messages a. Timing Clock 1st byte: Status byte 11111000 1st byte: Status byte 11111000 sent at regular intervals (e.g. 24 per quarter note for tpq=24) sent at regular intervals (e.g. 24 per quarter note for tpq=24) sent by master clock, to the other slave devices sent by master clock, to the other slave devices provides timing reference for the slave devices provides timing reference for the slave devices
  • Slide 27
  • MIDI message types: System messages 1. real-time system messages b. Start 1st byte: Status byte 11111010 1st byte: Status byte 11111010 Direct slave devices to start playback from time 0 Direct slave devices to start playback from time 0 c. Stop 1st byte: Status byte 11111100 1st byte: Status byte 11111100 direct slave devices to stop playback direct slave devices to stop playback song position value doesnt change song position value doesnt change can restore the playback at the place where it stops with the continue message d. Continue 1st byte: Status byte 11111011 1st byte: Status byte 11111011 direct slave devices to start playback from the present song position value direct slave devices to start playback from the present song position value
  • Slide 28
  • MIDI message types: System messages 1. real-time system messages e. System Reset 1st byte: Status byte 11111111 1st byte: Status byte 11111111 devices will return the control value to default setting. devices will return the control value to default setting. e.g. reset MIDI mode / program number assigned to patch e.g. reset MIDI mode / program number assigned to patch
  • Slide 29
  • MIDI message types: System messages 2. System Exclusive messages MIDI specification cant address every unique need of each MIDI device MIDI specification cant address every unique need of each MIDI device leave room for device-specific data leave room for device-specific data sysEx message are unique to a specific manufacturer sysEx message are unique to a specific manufacturer 1st byte: Status byte 11110000 1st byte: Status byte 11110000 2nd byte: manufacturer ID, 2nd byte: manufacturer ID, e.g. 1 = sequential, 67=Yamaha e.g. 1 = sequential, 67=Yamaha 3rd byte ( onwards ) : data byte(s) 3rd byte ( onwards ) : data byte(s)
  • Slide 30
  • MIDI message types: System messages 3. common system messages d. End of Exclusive (EOX) System Exclusive message can carries any number of bytes System Exclusive message can carries any number of bytes No other message can arrive until it ends No other message can arrive until it ends EOX will be used to indicate that a sysEx message is ended EOX will be used to indicate that a sysEx message is ended 1st byte: Status byte 11110111 1st byte: Status byte 11110111
  • Slide 31
  • Running Status Not a type of MIDI message Not a type of MIDI message It is a short-cut technique It is a short-cut technique A series of notes are represented with a single status byte A series of notes are represented with a single status byte Better transfer efficiency Better transfer efficiency e.g. very useful for drum-set patternsetc e.g. very useful for drum-set patternsetc
  • Slide 32
  • Running Status 1446039 1446737 1446039 1446443 6737 6443 Series of messages with Status Bytes Running Status 1st message, C note on, velocity= 39 2nd message, E note on, velocity= 43 3rd message, G note on, velocity= 37 1st message, C note on, velocity= 39 2nd message, E note on, velocity= 43 3rd message, G note on, velocity= 37
  • Slide 33
  • General MIDI Optional to manufacturer Optional to manufacturer But it is a good addendum But it is a good addendum to the MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification MIDI itself doesnt specify message or data MIDI itself doesnt specify message or data Program number 1 What does it mean? Program number 1 What does it mean? Piano? Flute? It is up to Manufacturers decision! Piano? Flute? It is up to Manufacturers decision! Program number 3 can be flute on synthesizer A, but can be horn on synthesizer B! Program number 3 can be flute on synthesizer A, but can be horn on synthesizer B!
  • Slide 34
  • What is General MIDI So, we have GM So, we have GM Define a set of available sound patches, with their program numbers fixed Define a set of available sound patches, with their program numbers fixed Sequence recorded on one GM synthesizer is then recognizable on other synthesizers. Sequence recorded on one GM synthesizer is then recognizable on other synthesizers.
  • Slide 35
  • General MIDI specification 1. Instrument Patch Map a list of 128 sounds, with assigned program numbers a list of 128 sounds, with assigned program numbers Loosely grouped into 16 families, each with 8 variations Loosely grouped into 16 families, each with 8 variations 2. Percussion Key Map 3. Other specification generally follow MIDI 1.0 32 simultaneous notes 32 simultaneous notes MIDI Channels: 16 MIDI Channels: 16 60 = Middle C 60 = Middle C
  • Slide 36
  • General MIDI specification Instrument Patch Map Family Classification Instrument Patch Map Family Classification 1-8 Piano 1-8 Piano 9-16 Pitched Percussion 9-16 Pitched Percussion 17-24 Organ 17-24 Organ 25-32 Guitar 25-32 Guitar 33-40 Bass 33-40 Bass 41-48 Strings 41-48 Strings 49-56 Ensemble 49-56 Ensemble 57-64 Brass 57-64 Brass 65-72 Reed 65-72 Reed 73-80 Pipe 73-80 Pipe 81-88 Synth Lead 81-88 Synth Lead 89-96 Synth Pad 89-96 Synth Pad 97-104 Synth Effects 97-104 Synth Effects 105-112 Ethnic 105-112 Ethnic 113-120 Percussive 113-120 Percussive 121-128 Sound Effects 121-128 Sound Effects
  • Slide 37
  • General MIDI 2 Now we have GM2 already Now we have GM2 already Increases: Increases: number of available sounds number of available sounds amount of control available for sound editing / musical performance. amount of control available for sound editing / musical performance. For example: For example: control number 75 = Decay Time control number 75 = Decay Time control number 76 = Vibrato Rate (cc#76) control number 76 = Vibrato Rate (cc#76) All GM2 devices are also fully compatible with GM1. All GM2 devices are also fully compatible with GM1.
  • Slide 38
  • Other General MIDI standards 1. GM Lite Based on the assumption that the reduced performance may be acceptable Based on the assumption that the reduced performance may be acceptable - For example, different in specification compared with GM1: 16 (half GM1) simultaneous notes 16 (half GM1) simultaneous notes 1 Simultaneous Percussion Kits 1 Simultaneous Percussion Kits (GM1 has two channel 11 can be set as percussion kit if necessary) (GM1 has two channel 11 can be set as percussion kit if necessary)
  • Slide 39
  • Other General MIDI standards 2. Scalable Polyphony MIDI (SP-MIDI) composers can indicate how MIDI data should be performed by devices, with different polyphony. composers can indicate how MIDI data should be performed by devices, with different polyphony. by eliminating certain instrument parts, chosen by the composer. by eliminating certain instrument parts, chosen by the composer. Widely used for mobile cellular phones Widely used for mobile cellular phones e.g. for a SP-4 polyphony can be preset for a Nokia 3200 phone: it have 4 channel polyphony it have 4 channel polyphony with melody line be the 1st priority with melody line be the 1st priority channel 10 be the 2nd priority channel 10 be the 2nd priority and the rest be the 3rd priority and the rest be the 3rd priority
  • Slide 40
  • Limitations of GM 1. Dynamics How should a note of pressure 120 on program number 1 be performed? How should a note of pressure 120 on program number 1 be performed? Different samplers use different voice samples Different samplers use different voice samples what if manufacturer A uses a Steinway piano, manufacturer B uses a Yamaha piano? what if manufacturer A uses a Steinway piano, manufacturer B uses a Yamaha piano? The dynamics can be very different! The dynamics can be very different!
  • Slide 41
  • Limitations of GM 2. Instrument definition We know what is a flute We know what is a flute But, what is FX2 (sound track) ? But, what is FX2 (sound track) ? ?
  • Slide 42
  • MIDI Hardware a. Pure Musical Input Devices Most common: Keyboard Most common: Keyboard Optional Features i. Note Polyphony: Nowadays, most keyboard have polyphony (a $200 keyboard made in the Mainland, can have 10 polyphony) Nowadays, most keyboard have polyphony (a $200 keyboard made in the Mainland, can have 10 polyphony) ii. Touch response A keyboard can sense different levels of input pressure A keyboard can sense different levels of input pressure
  • Slide 43
  • MIDI Hardware Other possible pure input MIDI I/O devices: Other possible pure input MIDI I/O devices: Guitar, Flute, Violin, Drumset Guitar, Flute, Violin, Drumset
  • Slide 44
  • MIDI Hardware b. Other Musical Input Devices Keyboard + synthesizer Keyboard + synthesizer = keyboard synthesizer = keyboard synthesizer have real-time audio output have real-time audio output Some keyboard synthesizers support DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Some keyboard synthesizers support DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Which gives more available effects Which gives more available effects e.g. phaser, chorus e.g. phaser, chorus Keyboard + synthesizer + sequencer /sampler/effects processors. Keyboard + synthesizer + sequencer /sampler/effects processors. = keyboard workstation = keyboard workstation you can then compose and make music, you can then compose and make music, just with a keyboard just with a keyboard
  • Slide 45
  • MIDI Hardware c. Controllers Numbered controllers Numbered controllers e.g. volume panel e.g. volume panel Continuous Controllers Continuous Controllers You can roll the controller to get a particular value You can roll the controller to get a particular value e.g. modulation wheel e.g. modulation wheel On/Off controllers On/Off controllers can send two different values (e.g. 0/127) can send two different values (e.g. 0/127) e.g. foot pedal (sustain pedal) e.g. foot pedal (sustain pedal)
  • Slide 46
  • MIDI Hardware c. Controllers bidirectional controllers bidirectional controllers it will jump back to the center it will jump back to the center when released when released e.g.. pitch wheel e.g.. pitch wheel universal MIDI controller universal MIDI controller Can control all types of control events Can control all types of control events In some products, the panel can synchronize with the software: the panel will move if you adjust parameters in the software. In some products, the panel can synchronize with the software: the panel will move if you adjust parameters in the software.
  • Slide 47
  • MIDI Hardware d. Synthesizer Generates sound from scratch Generates sound from scratch Method: Method: 1. Wavetable/direct synthesis. store the series of numbers the represent the amplitude values of a waveform, at each sample interval, then recall the stored value to produce sound store the series of numbers the represent the amplitude values of a waveform, at each sample interval, then recall the stored value to produce sound 2. frequency modulation (FM) synthesis Simple waveforms change the frequencies of other simple waveform, produce a new waveform. Simple waveforms change the frequencies of other simple waveform, produce a new waveform. 3. additive synthesis add together a number of harmonics at different frequency add together a number of harmonics at different frequency 4. subtractive synthesis starts with a waveform that is already rich in harmonics, then filter out unwanted harmonics to produce a desired sound starts with a waveform that is already rich in harmonics, then filter out unwanted harmonics to produce a desired sound 5, phase distortion a simple waveform is altered to produce a more complex one a simple waveform is altered to produce a more complex one
  • Slide 48
  • MIDI Hardware Example: Yamaha SY85 Synthesizer Example: Yamaha SY85 Synthesizer What synthesis technique does it use? What synthesis technique does it use? Plays back samples in attack, and then begins looping one period of samples for sustain and decay. Plays back samples in attack, and then begins looping one period of samples for sustain and decay. Uses LPF with decreasing cutoff frequency to make wavetable output gradually become less bright. Uses LPF with decreasing cutoff frequency to make wavetable output gradually become less bright. Uses 5-segment amplitude envelopes for wavetable synthesis. Uses 5-segment amplitude envelopes for wavetable synthesis. Sampling for attack wavetable for sus/decay lowpass filter out
  • Slide 49
  • MIDI Hardware e. Sequencer replay a sequence of MIDI messages replay a sequence of MIDI messages f. MIDI interface connect a group of MIDI devices together connect a group of MIDI devices together g. sound sampler record sound, then replay it on request record sound, then replay it on request Can perform transposition shift of one base sample, to produce different pitches Can perform transposition shift of one base sample, to produce different pitches Can take average Can take average of several samples, then produce a timbre interpolated output sound
  • Slide 50
  • MIDI Software a. Software Sampler e.g. Gigastudio, Kontakt e.g. Gigastudio, Kontakt P.S. now, most studio use software samplers for pop song, instead of hardware sampler. WHY? WHY? Since it is more economical, and more efficient to update Since it is more economical, and more efficient to update For example, the hardware sampler Roland XV5080, cost HK$17500. For example, the hardware sampler Roland XV5080, cost HK$17500. Its additional sound sample sub-cards are very expensive ($2000 for 100 samples) Its additional sound sample sub-cards are very expensive ($2000 for 100 samples) Also, the model of samplers are updated very quickly. For example, the last model XV5050 already cannot use the latest Roland SRX sub-card already Also, the model of samplers are updated very quickly. For example, the last model XV5050 already cannot use the latest Roland SRX sub-card already
  • Slide 51
  • MIDI Software a. Software Samplers However, for example, Gigastudio costs around $4000 for the software However, for example, Gigastudio costs around $4000 for the software A 3GB of additional sound samples only costs around HK$1000. A 3GB of additional sound samples only costs around HK$1000. All new samples are compatible to latest version since version 2.5 All new samples are compatible to latest version since version 2.5 As you can hear in the later section, you will find that the software synthesizer is actually performing MUCH BETTER than hardware synthesizer OF SIMILAR PRICE RANGE. As you can hear in the later section, you will find that the software synthesizer is actually performing MUCH BETTER than hardware synthesizer OF SIMILAR PRICE RANGE.
  • Slide 52
  • MIDI Software b. Recording software e.g cakewalk sonar, cool edit pro, CUbase, logic, protools e.g cakewalk sonar, cool edit pro, CUbase, logic, protools Much more efficient than using tape recording Much more efficient than using tape recording Can redo recording process Can redo recording process Can easily do editing Can easily do editing Also allows effects (reverb, echo, etc) Also allows effects (reverb, echo, etc)
  • Slide 53
  • MIDI Software c. Score editor : e.g. Finale, cakewalk overture e.g. Finale, cakewalk overture you can listen to the score by playback option you can listen to the score by playback option neat and tidy neat and tidy can do transposition/chord identification.etc, more easily than using handwritten score can do transposition/chord identification.etc, more easily than using handwritten score Can input a score with real instruments, then tidy it up by quantization Can input a score with real instruments, then tidy it up by quantization
  • Slide 54
  • Example of a recording process This is a Daisy-chain network, where device are connected serially This is a Daisy-chain network, where device are connected serially
  • Slide 55
  • Example of Comparing different sampler performance You can hear the difference between different synthesizers/modules, for playing the same MIDI file. You can hear the difference between different synthesizers/modules, for playing the same MIDI file. 1. Yamaha PCI FM Synthesizer 2. Roland XV-5050 (JV series) 3. Gigastudio And one more demo for Gigastudio:
  • Slide 56
  • Applications of MIDI 1. Studio Production recording, playback, cut-and-splice editing recording, playback, cut-and-splice editing creative control/effect can be added creative control/effect can be added 2. Making score with score editing software, MIDI is excellent in making score with score editing software, MIDI is excellent in making score some MIDI software provide function of auto accompaniment/intelligent chord arrangement some MIDI software provide function of auto accompaniment/intelligent chord arrangement 3. Learning You can write a MIDI orchestra, who are always eager to practice with you! You can write a MIDI orchestra, who are always eager to practice with you!
  • Slide 57
  • Applications of MIDI 4. Commercial products mobile phone ring tones, music box music.. mobile phone ring tones, music box music.. 5. Musical Analysis MIDI has detailed parameters for every input note MIDI has detailed parameters for every input note It is useful for doing research It is useful for doing research For example, a pianist can input his performance with a MIDI keyboard, then we can analyze his performance style by the parameters For example, a pianist can input his performance with a MIDI keyboard, then we can analyze his performance style by the parameters