week 7 – midi and sound. midi musical instrument digital interface stores instructions instead of...

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  • Slide 1
  • Week 7 MIDI and Sound
  • Slide 2
  • MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface Stores instructions instead of waveforms What instrument to use What note to play What volume to play it at When to start it When to stop it Any special effects
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  • MIDI 200 to 1000 times smaller than equivalent digital audio files on Playback each note is interpreted and synthesised Often used as theme or background music in titles
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  • General MIDI Designed as a standard set of codes between various MIDI devices Defines 128 program numbers which each describe a specific instrument e.g., 1 to 8 are pianos, 57 to 64 are brass Specifies which instrument is on which of the 16 MIDI channels, one per channel General MIDI device must play up to 24 notes simultaneously (24-voice polyphony)
  • Slide 5
  • MIDI The Trade-off File size is very small No compression necessary File size is not directly related to length of the music but to the complexity of the music, e.g., how many notes Playback quality is entirely dependent on the system used Poor sound card gives poor MIDI playback Cannot be used for speech or noises Can be captured from real synthesisers
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  • MIDI File Formats One main one -.MID Some older ones -.SNG (Voyetras Sequencer Plus Pro - DOS),.ROL (Rolands Adlib) MIDIs origins lie in the music industry May contain more than one representation of the music Base-level MIDI Extended-level MIDI May or may not be intended for Windows
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  • MIDI File Formats 2 A new one -.RMF (Rich Music Format) RMF files can encapsulate compressed MIDI data along with custom instrument samples and encrypted copyright information gives consistent playback fidelity across all of supported platforms, because the player uses its own software synthesiser instead of using the synthesiser provided on the computer's soundcard
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  • MIDI Base Level Microsoft's handling of MIDI uses a 16 channel definition Base-level MIDI Channels 13 to 16 Channels 13 to 15 are for melodic instruments Channel 16 is for percussion A Base-level MIDI file may specify: Six notes in total on the three melodic instruments and Three percussion notes played simultaneously, i.e., 9-voice polyphony
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  • MIDI Extended Level Microsoft's handling of MIDI uses a 16 channel definition Extended-level MIDI Channels 1to 10 Channels 1 to 9 are for melodic instruments Channel 10 is for percussion An Extended-level MIDI file may specify : Sixteen notes in total on the nine melodic instrumentsand Sixteen percussion notes simultaneously, i.e., 32-voice polyphony
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  • Windows MIDI Files Microsoft's guidelines specify device- independent MIDI files Two arrangements of each piece MIDI devices are assigned to channels by the Midi Mapper Base-level device will turn off channels 1 to 10 Extended-level device will turn off channels 13 to 16
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  • Windows MIDI Files 2 Instruments are allocated to channels by patch-mapping 128 melodic instruments 47 percussion instruments Conform to General MIDI standard Minimum 24-voice polyphony Standardised percussion and instrument channel assignments and patch mapping
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  • Using MIDI Creation & Modification Apple Pro tools Many others Windows pc Cakewalk Cubasis Audio Many others Musiteks Midiscan can scan sheet music!
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  • Using MIDI - Playback Playback through Any MIDI editor Apple QuickTime Windows Media Player Most MM authoring packages
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  • MIDI Reproduction Sound Card FM Synthesiser Mimics musical instruments by manipulating sine waves Creative Labs Sound Blaster series External Synthesiser Roland SC-55 Sound Canvas General MIDI device considered to be extended- level device
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  • MIDI Reproduction 2 Sound Card Wave Sample Synthesis Uses samples of actual musical instruments Roland SCC-1 & Audio Production Card: RAP-10/AT Creative Labs Audigy
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  • MIDI Considerations Cannot record complex noises Quality dependent on playback device Can be used to create original music High quality no storage penalty Easily manipulated if you are a musician Easy to change inherent sound
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  • MIDI MIDI is great for background music and other mood pieces Beware the MIDI Mapper! Be sure your MIDI set-up includes the proper instruments Stick to General MIDI unless composing music for other devices
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  • Adding MIDI to Macromedia Flash Cannot be imported but can be played through plug-ins within webpage's Can play midi through mobile phones on the Mobile Flash Player
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  • Adding MIDI to a Web Page There are four ways to do this: Use a normal link: Play the music. Use a normal link: Play the music. the result may be the sound just plays when the page is opened a plug-in player may open as a Web page a helper application may open in a separate window
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  • Adding MIDI to a Web Page 2 Use a BGSOUND in IE: Use a BGSOUND in IE: the result will be the sound plays when the page is opened Use the OBJECT in IE tag to use an Active-X control to play the sound, e.g.: Use the OBJECT in IE tag to use an Active-X control to play the sound, e.g.: the result will be an Active-X control opens at the specified size in-line in the Web page
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  • Adding MIDI to a Web Page 3 Use the EMBED tag in NN to use a plug-in to play the sound, e.g.: Use the EMBED tag in NN to use a plug-in to play the sound, e.g.: the result will be a plug-in player opens at the specified size in-line in the Web page
  • Slide 22
  • Lecture 6 HTML Digital Media Module
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  • Production tools for HTML We will use Macromedia Dreamweaver MX Available on most University machines Other tools can be used by you at home but tuition and support are not supplied! If not Dreamweaver I would recommend nvu (from www.nvu.com) www.nvu.com Basic but competent and free Basic but competent and free
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  • Dreamweaver MX and HTML Primary aim To learn HTML Secondary Aim Learn how to use Dreamweaver MX In that order!
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  • HTML HyperText Mark Up Language Developed in early 90s Developed in early 90s to allow authors to publish documents that could be shared and viewed from a central location Developed in early 90s Based around the idea of sharing information across the internet and different platforms Developed from SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) Based around the use of tags to mark areas and link document (hyperlinking)
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  • To Start A Webpage The doctype declaration references a Document Type Definition (DTD) and declares a page as a HTML page Without it the browser has to guess what type of page it is
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  • Page Title Page Title Example Text HTML Structure Start a HTML page Start the Header section of the page End the Header section of the page Start the Body of the page End the Body of the page Ends the HTML page The content of the page The page title (and more.)
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  • The content of the page The page title
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  • Tag Structure With a few exceptions all tags must be paired up e.g. And then In latest version of HTML HTML 4.0 you should pair tags Similarly we have
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  • Common Tags Formatting of text bold text or bold text or italics text or italics text or underlined text underlined text Placing of text creates a new paragraph creates a new line creates a horizontal rule
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  • Tag Attributes Some tags can have values attached to them Body tag can change the background colour of a page
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  • Normal Font Size 1 Font Size 2 Font Size 3 Font Size 4
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  • The Hyperlink Tag The most important one of all! The Hyperlink tag allows the linking of one document to another Homepage hyperlink Homepage hyperlink news site news site
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  • Supplementary Materials Webmonkey guide to HTML http://hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey/authoring/html_basics/ http://hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey/authoring/html_basics/ Beginners guide to HTML http://www.activejump.com/ http://www.activejump.com/ A Beginners Guide to HTML http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/ http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/ Dreamweaver www.dmxzone.com www.dmxzone.com Macromedia Developer/Designer zone www.macromedia.com/desdev www.macromedia.com/desdev Books through Netlibrary Dreamweaver MX : The Complete Reference Dreamweaver MX : A Beginner's Guide
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  • The Practicals Over the next few weeks we will develop a website for a multimedia artist It will include the artists image, music and video library as well as Flash Content Video Content
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  • Sitemap for the Project Site Homepage/About AboutNews News 1News 2 Pricing Form Gallery AudioVideoPicture Contact Free Stuff/ Download ScreensaverFlash Movie