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    Dr. R. S. RANA, Scientist(Agricultural Engineering,HAREC,Dhaulakuan, Distt. Sirmour(HP)


  • *Water is fundamental for life and health. The human right to water is indispensable for leading a healthy life in human dignity. It is a pre-requisite to the realization of all other human rights.-The United Nations Committee on Economic, Cultural and Social Rights, Environment News Service, 27 Nov 02 The period 2005-2015 is the International Decade for action Water for Life

  • *Water ScarcityCriteria
  • *DO WE HAVE ENOUGH WATER ?With 2085 cubic km of fresh water India stands 7th in the world.India heading towards water scarce situation

    Source: Biswaas, A.K. 1998. Water Resources-Environmental Planning, Management and Development. Pub: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited , New Delhi

    YEAR PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY, CU M19476008199422802025150020501270

  • *Agriculture, in IndiaShare: 25% of the National GDP

    15% of exports.

    Agriculture sector - largest consumer of water.

    To meet the food security, income and nutritional needs of the projected population in 2020, the food production in India will have to be almost doubled to 400 million tons.

    Alone consumes 88% of water available which irrigate 38% of cultivated area (DAC, 1999).

    The overall irrigation efficiency of conventional irrigation methods such as furrow and border has not been more than 40% (INCID, 1994).

  • Virtual water for some important productsVirtual water is the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. (Tony Allan, 1990)By importing virtual water, water poor countries can relieve the pressure on their domestic water resources.


  • *If water is priced at 1 paise a liter, it costs Rs. 1,20,000 for growing paddy in one hectare landPaddy requires approx. 120 cm of waterValuing Water

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    Irrigating LandOrCrops ?Wasteful surface irrigation method

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    DEPLETING GROUND WATERWater diversion for domestic demand

  • *What is Microirrigation?Frequent application of small quantities of water directly above and below the soil surface; usually as discrete drops, continuous drops, tiny streams, or microspray; through emitters or applicators placed along a water delivery line To irrigate and fertigate the plant instead of soil

  • *Moisture availability in different irrigation methods

  • *Types of MI SystemsA. Surface On-line drip systemsIn-line drip systemsMicro-jetsMicro-sprinklers

    B. Subsurface drip Irrigation system

  • *Controlled applicationHigh soil water potential in root zonePartial soil wettingMaintain dry foliageUse of low quality waterEnergy efficientFertigation/ chemigationAdoption of marginal waterAdoption to landscape irrigationAdoption to protected cropsAttributes

  • *Low water delivery rate and pressure Precise placement of water and nutrientsMinimum application, runoff and deep percolation lossesImproves irrigation control and efficiencyLess weed growth Improved crop yieldsMore crop per unit water Advantages

  • *High initial cost CloggingSalt accumulation in soilLack of microclimateIrrigation for seed germinationOperational constraintsLimitation

  • *DRIP IRRIGATIONIt is the technique of slow application of water in the form of discrete, continuous drop, tiny stream or miniature sprays through mechanical devices called drippers or emitters.

  • *Fig 2 : A general layout of drip irrigation system

  • *Water distribution under point source

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    6 x 8LPH 2-3ft

    2ft Online dripper placement

    Wetting Pattern Plant

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    Double lateral wetting pattern 8 x 4LPHPlant Wetting Pattern

  • *Table 2: STATUS OF DRIP IRRIGATION COVERAGE IN INDIA Gujarat 2007-08 45,000 ha Total= 100000 ha

    Sr.NoStateUp to 2005-06 (ha)2006-07 (ha)Total (ha)1Maharashtra219696515972712932Andhra Pradesh152227662582184853Karnataka114304216791359834TamilNadu116665122411289065Gujarat1668638314550006Rajasthan100252653126787Kerala10559848114078Madhya Pradesh6483275192349Uttar Pradesh46091633624210Punjab42621141540311Haryana42191068528712Orissa2036429246513Chattisgarh19790197914Goa7408748Total664490200620865110

  • *Table 1. Countries having significant areas under microirrigation

    Sr.No. Country Irrigated area (M ha) Area under Microirrigation (M ha) Sprinkler %Drip % Total % 1Israel0.230.058250.170740.228992France1.581.42900.10371.523973Russia4.453.96890.20044.160934Saudi Arabia1.170.75640.198170.948815Spain3.280.89271.172362.062636USA21.39.80461.209611.01527South Africa1.490.60400.178120.778528Brazil3.441.20350.378111.578469India60.01.7130.85012.3004

  • *MICRO-SPRINKLER IRRIGATIONIn this system small sprinkler like devices called micro-sprinkler, spray water over soil surface in the root zone at low pressure.

  • * Micro-sprinkler irrigation in citrus orchard

  • * Micro-sprinkler irrigation in floriculture

  • * Micro sprinkler irrigation under control condition

  • *Operating pressure: 1-2 bars Flow rate: 35-250 litres/hr Wetting diameter: 3-6 m Precipitation rate: 2-20 mm/hrPerformance Characteristics of Mirco-JetRef: Pressurized Irrigation Techniques By FAO

  • * Micro-jet irrigation with 1800


  • * Micro-jet irrigation with 3600

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  • *Subsurface Drip irrigation

  • *Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is advancement over surface drip irrigation.

    Defined as application of water below the soil surface through the emitters, with discharge rates generally in the same range as surface drip irrigation

    Indicates lateral placement below soil surface.Subsurface Drip Irrigation

  • * Reduced evaporation loss Precise placement of water and chemicals More efficient water and chemical useEnhanced plant growth, crop yield and quality Less interference with cultural operationsReduced damage due to weed, pest and diseasesReduced exposure of irrigation equipment to damageNo soil crusting due to irrigation Advantages of SDI over surface drip irrigation

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    5 cm10 cm15 cm20 cmSoil SurfaceLocation of lateralsFig.7: Section at X-XR1R2R3

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    Depth of lateral, ZW1,T1W2,T2W3,T3W4,T4W5,T5D1, T1D2, T2D3, T3D4, T4D5, T5 Fig. 8: Soil wetting under SDI at different duration of water application

    Location of dripper

  • *Soil wetting with different depth of placement of laterals

  • *Soil wetting with 15, 10 and 5 cm depth of lateral

  • * Subsurface Drip irrigation

  • * Subsurface drip irrigation in cotton

  • *Micro irrigation techniques have provided an alternative to the farming community because of its water-saving and yield increasing potential which raises the prospect of increasing the crop productivity.

    Different micro-irrigation methods along with mulch and proper crop geometry increases the water use efficiency and yields of crops by many folds.

    Micro-irrigation techniques have materialized the concept of more crop per drop by insuring the availability of adequate quantity and quality of water especially in dryland agriculture where water is the most limiting factor in crop production.

    Subsurface drip is expected to give valuable results under dry weather conditions and mitigate the adverse effect of water scarcity supporting substantially good yields.Conclusion

  • In traditional agriculture,water managementandNutrient Managementaretwo distinct activities.Traditional Practice of Agriculture

  • FERTIGATION vs. FERTILIZATIONAPPLICATION OF NUTRIENTSConventional pre plant fertilizer: Plants get a larger dosage of fertilizer than they require at the time it is applied. Losses occur.Fertigation: Fertilizers are applied according the need for nutrients, following the uptake rate of the crop.


  • Why Fertigation?

    Losses through leaching, volatilization and runoffActive root zone area due to restricted wetted areaIn broadcast or band application 40 % of fertilizer fall beyond the active root zone

  • Soil erosion and Run-offFates of Applied Nutrients

    ImmobilizationLeaching Lattice/Chemical fixation Plant removalVolatilization

  • Selection of crop/ varietyWays to improve efficiencyMethods of applicationTime of applicationLand and irrigation managementNutrient sourceUse of inhibitor/ modified formsBalance nutritionIntegrated use To be a good fertigator, a grower first needs to be a good irrigator Clark, G.A.(1991)

  • 1.Uniform application of fertilizer:2.Placement in root zone;3.Quick and convenient method:4.Save /Increased fertilizer use efficiency:5.Frequent application is possible:6.Application in different grades of fertilizers:7.Micronutrients application:8.Saves ground water pollution:9.Increase in crop yieldFertigation advantages

  • Limitation of fertigation

    High initial cost:Uneven nutrient distribution when the irrigation system is faultyChemical reactions of fertilizers with calcium and bicarbonate in water, which can lead to clogging.Need for skilled labour/ trained hands for management and maintenance. Fertilizer suitability:

  • Suitable fertilizers for fertigation

    High nutrient content in a form readily available to plants. Highly soluble at field temperature conditions. Fine-granule product. No chemical interaction between the fertilizer and irrigation water. Minimum content of conditioning agent.

  • Pressure GaugeAir release ValveDisk FilterHydro-Cyclone FilterFertilizer PumpDisk FilterInletOutlet

  • Media filterFertilizertankAir valveWater Meter(optional)ThrottlevalveNon-returnvalvePressure gaugeFlow Control& Backflushvalves

    Head Control UnitDisc filter



    Fertilizer tankVenturi injectorFertilizer pumps


  • Hydro Cyclone Filter

  • Hydro Cyclone Filter

  • Leader Filter Parts Step by StepFilter BodyCoverFilter ElementSealCapWater/pressure release valve



  • Rain water harvesting - MIS

  • Approximately 15-20 m head is sufficient for getting 1.2 kg pressure at mains inletZero energy MIS

  • Fertilizer tankFilterWater sourceOver flow outletNon return valveFertilizer tank (Flow by-pass system):

  • Injection pumpFertilizer tankFilterWater sourceOver flow outletNon return valveFertilizer Injector Pump (Fertigation Pump)

  • Fertigation

  • Non return valveVentury injector

  • Drip + Mulch + Fertigation in brinjalMethods of irrigation

  • Water saving : 20%Fertilizer saving : 20%Water saving : 20%Fertilizer saving : 20%Methods of irrigation

  • Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch +fertigation in banana

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield20-35Water saving40Fertilizer saving40Early maturity30-35 (days)

  • Paired row +Drip irrigation + Black plastic mulch + fertigation in tomato

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield37Water saving33Fertilizer saving40

  • Drip irrigation + mulch in brinjal

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield39Water saving40Fertilizer saving20

  • Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch + fertigation in okra

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield25Water saving40Fertilizer saving20

  • Paired row + Drip irrigation + plastic mulch in bitter gourd

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield18Water saving40

  • Drip irrigation with black plastic mulch in rose

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield40Water saving20Fertilizer saving25

  • Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv. Gujarat Red

    Sr. No.Crop / Variety(Spacing: cm)% Water saving% Yield increase% N saving1Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20)422320

  • Paired row + Drip irrigation + black plastic mulch + fertigation in chillies

    Improvement over surface method of irrigation (%)Yield20-45Water saving40-50Fertilizer saving20

  • Fertigation with micro-irrigation Systems

    Drip or Micro JetPivot or frontal irrigation boom

    Foliar application

  • Sprinkler irrigation + fertigation in onion cv. Gujarat Red

    Sr. No.Crop / Variety(Spacing: cm)% Water saving% Yield increase% N saving1Onion cv. Gujarat Red (15 x 20)422320

  • CONCLUSION From the foregoing discussion, it can be concluded that fertigation, a recently emerged advance technique holds promise in yield maximization in wide spaced crops viz. cash crops, fruits & vegetables and plantation crops. Besides bumper yield in most of the crops, it realizes 20-40 %fertilizer saving and 40-50% water saving as well as nutrient uptake and better quality of produce. Adoption of this technique to a larger extent will not only increase the crop yield but also the fertilizer use efficiency and quality of produce. However, extensive efforts are required for standardization of this technique for varying crops and conditions.

  • VisionValuesStrategyResourceCapabilityMotivationFeed Back


    Managing Change


  • *Main canalBranch / DistributaryMinor











  • *Concept of PINS- Network Bridge Between Canal and MIS in the Field



  • *Sample Chak Plan Showing Layout of Buried pipe line




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  • Save Water

    Save energy

    and save life