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Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation RAMESH JAIN

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  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    RAMESH JAIN

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Global Food Security

    MDG-1, Halving number of undernourished by 2015;

    World Population at 8 billions by 2030;

    Future food security dependent on use of Natural Resources particularly water.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Global Freshwater

    5717448007835.92025

    7370448006079.02000

    10058448004454.31980

    17532448003039.71960

    Potential water availability (m3/yr)

    Average annual renewable global

    water resources (km3)

    Population (millions)

    Year

    (Source: Marios, 2004)

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Water for Agriculture

    Agriculture is the biggest user of water, accounting world wide for about 69% of all withdrawals.

    Domestic use amounts to about 10% and industry uses some 21% (Fao, 2003).

    In 2025, 48 countries with about 3 billion people are projected to face water shortages.

    As climate change exacerbate risks, water users will need to adopt Water Saving approaches.

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Water crisis in IndiaIn India only 36% of total annual surface runoff (188 million hectare metres) is put to use -

    Total annual utilisable water resources of the country estimated at 113 million hectare metres.

    Projected demand by the year 2010 120 million hectare metres.

    Need for appropriate management strategies to increase availability of utilizable fresh water sources

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Augmenting fresh water resources

    Live storage of surface runoff water harvesting structures.

    Artificial recharge of ground water to augment its availability.

    In-situ moisture conservation through watershed interventions.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    To address the need for:

    Optimising Storage, Conveyance and Distribution of water;

    Greater equity in water distribution;

    Higher productivity per unit of water;

    Long term sustainability;

    Improving the ecology and environment.

    Integrated Watershed Management

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Integrated Watershed Management

    The concept is based on:

    local area specific total land and water use planning

    as against current command area wide crop and water use

    planning.

    The concept assumes closer community involvement in all

    aspects of the land and water use management including

    planning, execution and maintenance of the systems.

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro IrrigationMicro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Watershed development measures include:

    (a) Soil Conservation Measures:Contour bunding, land levelling, contour farming etc. to prevent and arrest sheet erosion of topsoil.

    (b) Water Conservation Measures:Structures to prevent run-off rainwater for conservation wherever possible so that it permeates into substrata and recharges the ground water in the entire watershed area.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro IrrigationMicro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Watershed development measures include:

    (c) Biomass Generation Measures - Planting of trees, bushes and grasses along steep hill slopes, wastelands, field boundaries etc. to prevent soil erosion and meet fuel and fodder requirements.

    (d) Reuse planning for used domestic water.(e) Groundwater Recharge with Rainwater

    Cont.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Soil quality enhancement measures to improve Water Holding Capacity

    Use of improved seed and plant material,

    Maximum use of organic manures and other solid waste generated from farming.

    Use of modern irrigation techniques for achieving higher water use efficiency of the harvested/percolated water

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Integration of Measures for Efficient Water Usage:

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Organic Manuring.

    Green Manuring

    Vermicompost Application

    Crop Rotation

    Addition of tank/lake silt

    Intercropping

    In-situ Crop residue decomposition

    Soil improvement and amendments

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    A Model Micro Watershed Harvesting SystemPolylined Pond

    It is based on the concept of storing the water where it falls.

    Rainwater falling in the field is allowed to flow within the field.

    The runoff water is diverted and stored in the storage tank or farm pond.

    Storage tank or pond is either lined or unlined depending upon soil type.

    Farm land becomes the micro catchment area.

    Catchment area is lined in areas where infiltration rate is high e.g.

    sandy/sandy loam soil and annual rainfall is low (about 300mm).

    Catchment area need not be lined in areas where clay content of the soil

    is high and/or annual rainfall is medium to good (more than 500 mm)

    Most Importantly, Harvested Water to be judiciously used with either drip

    or sprinkler irrigation systems.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Design of a Polylined Pond Gross farm area of 1 ha Poly lined pond of 1500 m3 capacity constructed at lowest point. Pond dimensions: 21m x 21m of bottom and 27m x 27m of top with 3m

    depth Pond is lined using polyethylene film of 250 GSM (grams per square

    meter). 1.40 acres of the available land adjacent to the Pond is converted into a

    catchment area for the pond. Catchment area is covered with thin polyethylene film of 80 to 100 GSM. In the catchment area as well as in the balance area of 1 acre, ie in an area

    of 2.30 acres; arid fruit crops such as Pomegranate be taken up. Rainwater falling in the farm will flow into the pond. 1500 m3 or 1.5 million litres of water can be collected with rainfall of

    300mm. Stored water will be used for irrigating the plants with drip irrigation system. 1.5 million litres of water can irrigate the plants in 2.30 acres for a period of

    3 months after the rainy season. During the rainy season, rainfed short duration crops can

    be taken up as intercrop between the fruit plants.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Poly Lined Pond

    Model Micro Watershed Harvesting System for Rainfed Areas

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Model Micro Watershed Harvesting System for Rainfed Areas

    Picture Shows:

    Lined Pond,

    Part of Catchment with Lining and

    Remaining Catchment without lining

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Some Water Harvesting Projects(Acres)

    Jain Agri Park, Jalgaon, Maharashtra (1200)

    Kasturiba Health Society, Sevagram, Maharashtra (200)

    Jain Terra Farm, Udumalpet, Tamilnadu (1200)

    Hindustan Coca - Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Thane (70)

    Hindustan Coca Cola, Kheda, Gujarat (30)

    Hindustan Coca Cola, Bhopal, M.P. (12)

    Hindustan Coca Cola, Bhubneshwar, Orissa (25)

    Pepsico Holding, Chembur, Maharashtra (4)

    Green Valley, Panvel, Maharashtra. (30)

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Problem : Scarcity of water, the essential raw material for the industry

    Average rainfall : 1300-1500 mm

    Impact of Watershed Development works

    Total runoff generated : 162636 m3 per annum

    From roof water : 28000 m3 per annum

    from the premises : 38506 m3 per annum

    From the Gully : 95290 m3 per annum

    Recharging Possibility: Moderate to Good

    Impact of Watershed development Project for Hindustan Coca - Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Thane

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Drip Irrigation

    Drip Irrigation is a modern method of irrigation in which:

    Water is applied directly to the root zone of the plants.

    Water is applied at frequent intervals at precise quantities based on Crop Water Requirements.

    Water is applied through a low-pressure pipe network comprising Mains, Submains, Laterals and Emitting Devices.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Drip Irrigation System -Advantages

    Crop Yield Enhancement Saving in Irrigation Water Saving in Energy in pumping Savings in Fertilizer consumption

    Fertigation or Nutrigation Quality Improvement of Produce Improved Pest & Disease Control Improves Soil Health Reduced Weed Growth Reduced Labour Costs Suitable for Difficult Land Terrains Suitable and Marginal lands Suitable for inferior quality water.

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    FRUIT CROPS :Almond, Apple, Arecanut, Indian Gooseberry, Ber (Zizyphus), Banana, Cashew, Custard Apple, Cherry, Durian, Fig, Guava, Grape, Litchi, Lemon, Sweet Lime, Mango, Orange, Olive, Papaya, Pomegranate, Pear, Peach, Pistachio, Pineapple, Sapota, Strawberry, Star Fruit, Jack Fruit, Tamarind, Water Melon, Musk Melon.VEGETABLE CROPS :Brinjal, Cucumber, Lettuce, Pepper, Potato, Pea, Tomato.FIELD & OTHER CROPS:Corn, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Betel vine, Mulberry.OIL SEEDS :Groundnut, Sunflower, Jojoba, Castor.FORAGE CROPS :Lucerne, Pastures, Turfs, Fodder.PLANTATION CROPS :Cardamom, Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Spices, Oil Palm, Coconut.ORNAMENTALS :Floricultural Plants; Rose, Gerbera, Carnation, Gladioli, Poinsettias, Chrysanthemum.FOREST TREES :Eucalyptus, Casuarinas, Teak, Acacia, Bamboo, Neem, Dalbergia.(Partial list of crops for which drip irrigation has been successfully commercialised. Crops of species similar to the above will also be ideally suitable for drip irrigation systems.)

    Micro Irrigation Indian ExperienceMicro Irrigation is Commercially and Economically Viable in:

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Comparison with Conventional Practices, Case from Akola1 Area, acres 12 Drip type: Turboline with integral drippers spaced at 0.75 m

    S.No. ParticularsDrip Conventional

    1 Fixed Cost 25000 0a. Life (years ) 10 0b. Depreciation, Rs (10% of [1]) 10% 2500 0c. Interest rate, Rs (15% of [1]) 15% 3750 0d. Repair & Maintenance, Rs (2% of [1]) 2% 500 0e. Total (1b+1c+1d) 6750 0f. Fixed cost for the season Rs =(1e/Area)*0.4 2700 0g. Fixed cost per acre, Rs =(1e/Area) 2700 0

    2 Cost of Cultivation per acre, 12100 12100 108003 Total Cost of Cultivation, Rs = (2)*Area 12100 108004 Seasonal Total Cost (1e+3), Rs 18850 10800

    ECONOMICS OF ONION CULTIVATION WITH DRIP IRRIGATIONMicro Irrigation Case Studies (Onion)

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    5 Water Consumption,mm 775 14106 Yield of Produce, MT/acre 13.5 7.07 Total Yield of Produce, MT (6)*Area 13.5 7.08 Selling Price,Rs./Ton 3500 35009 Gross Income from produce,Rs = (7x8) 47250 24500

    10 Net Seasonal Income,Rs = ( 9-4 ) 28400 1370011

    Additional Area Cultivable due to saving in water,ac. 0.82 0

    12Additional Expenditure due to Additional Area,Rs=[(11)*(2+1f)] 12126 0

    13Additional Income due to Additional Area,Rs = (6x11x8) 38715 0

    14 Additional Net Income,Rs = (13-12 ) 26588 015 Gross Cost of Production,Rs = (4+12) 30976 1080016 Total Gross Income,Rs = (13+9) 85965 2450017 Output to Input Ratio = (16/15) 2.78 2.2718 Total Net Income, Rs = (14+10) 54988 1370019 Benefit Cost Ratio = (18/1)# 2.20 1.2720 Net Extra Income Due To Drip Over

    Conventional Irrigation 41288 0

    21 Pay-Back Period, Years =(1/18) 0.6122 Water Use Efficiency, kg/ha mm. 43.03 12.26

    Micro Irrigation Case Studies (Onion) contd

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    1 Area, acres 12 Row to Row Spacing, ft 2.53 Spacing between pairs of Rows, ft 54 Drip type: Turboline with integral drippers spaced at 0.75 m

    S.No. Particulars Spacing:2.5'x3.5'x2.5'Drip Flood

    1 Fixed Cost 25000 0a. Life (years ) 10 10b. Depreciation, Rs (10% of [1]) 10% 2500 0c. Interest rate, Rs (15% of [1]) 15% 3750 0d. Repair & Maintenance, Rs (2% of [1]) 2% 500 0e. Total (1b+1c+1d) 6750 0f. Fixed cost per acre, Rs =(1e/Area) 6750 0

    2 Cost of Cultivation per acre, 20000 240003 Total Cost of Cultivation, Rs = (2)*Area 20000 240004 Seasonal Total Cost (1e+3), Rs 26750 240005 Water Consumption,mm 1200 20006 Yield of Produce, MT/acre 59 367 Total Yield of Produce, MT (6)*Area 59 368 Selling Price,Rs./Ton 780 7809 Gross Income from produce,Rs = (7x8) 46020 28080

    10 Net Seasonal Income,Rs = ( 9-4 ) 19270 408011 Gross Cost of Production,Rs 26750 2400012 Total Gross Income,Rs 46020 2808013 Gross Benefit Cost Ratio = (12/11) 1.72 1.1714 Net Extra Income Due To Drip Over Conventional Irrigation = [10drip-

    10conventional]15190 0

    15 Pay-Back Period, Years =(1/14) 1.6516 Water Use Efficiency, kg/ha mm. 121.44 44.46

    ** The Mill reports a recovery % of 12.16 under drip and only 11.81 under conventional Irrigation

    Farmer- K.K.R. Tamilarasu, Chokkanathapuram, Sivagangai, TN ** (2001-2002)Micro Irrigation Case Studies (Sugarcane)

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Micro Irrigation

    Provide infrastructure status to Micro Irrigation.

    No Lift without Drip

    Watershed / Command area to be integrated with

    Micro Irrigation.

    Enhancing coverage of MIS

    JAIN Integrated Model

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Objectives Irrigation as per crop need Substitution of open canal conveyance losses by pipe

    network, followed by on-farm micro irrigation system. Increase coverage by integrating micro irrigation with

    lift irrigation. Saving water upto 50%. Higher yield/productivity.

    On Demand Irrigation

    Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

  • Micro Watershed to Micro Irrigation

    Thank youMOR

    E CRO

    P PER

    DROP