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Sprinkler, Drip, and Micro irrigation
Sprinkler, Drip, and Micro Irrigation Technology
When water enters a sprinkler irrigation system (or sprinkler equipment), it becomes pressurized and is sprayed into the air via nozzles. The water forms droplets in the air and falls onto the ground, providing the water that is crucial to crop growth.
Sprinkler irrigation can increase crop yield by 15-25% when compared to a surface irrigation system. The irrigation uniformity can generally reach 80-85%, the utilization efficiency can reach over 80%, and water consumption will drop 30-50%. Sprinkler irrigation is suitable for various types of soil and crops, and isn’t limited by terrain conditions. It can potentially improve the efficiency by twenty to thirty times, land utilization efficiency by 7-15%, but has a relatively high evaporation loss.
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A sprinkler system is comprised of: water works, filter system, transmission and distribution piping system, and nozzles.
A sprinkler system is formed with a pipeline sprinkler system and unit type sprinkler system.
a.Pipeline sprinkler system: hasthe water distribution system as the core of the system.
b.Unit type sprinkler system: has a compact structure, flexible uses, high machinery utilization, and low cost per irrigation area unit. It has a wide range of prospects in agricultural irrigation.
It is a form of irrigation water saving, and is suitable for irrigating field crops. Compared with surface irrigation, the irrigation method has the following advantages:
1.Saves water and has minimal water loss; does not cause deep percolation and surface runoff
2.Saves electricity by up to 27%
3.Saves land by about 30%
4.Increases crop yield by about 30%
Drip irrigation technology
Drip irrigation uses emitters installed at the ends of pipes and drip tapes fused into the capillary tubes, to moisturize the soil with pressurized water in the form of water droplets. The flow rate of drip irrigation emitters is between 2 to 12 L/h. The entire system, from the first transmission pipe network to the emitters, ensure that the system runs safely and reliably in the most economic conditions.Drip irrigation systems can be categorized into greenhouse drip irrigation systems, field drip irrigation systems, and fruit tree drip irrigation systems. Drip irrigation has a wide range of applications.
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Compared with other irrigation methods, drip irrigation has the following characteristics:
1.Low evaporation loss
2.Moisturizes the soil locally and saves water
3.Can be controlled automatically depending on the characteristics of growth of each crop.
4.Can be combined with fertigation and the application of pesticides
5.Will not cause soil compaction or affect the root environment of crops
6.Will increase crop yield and quality due to the ability to control the amount and timing of irrigation
Micro sprinkler irrigation Micro-sprinkler irrigation is a method of irrigation. It uses micro-sprinklers directly installed onto the capillary tubes or connected to the capillary tubes to moisturize the soil by spraying pressurized water. The flow rate of micro-sprinklers is usually between 20 to 250 L/h.
Micro-sprinkler systems can be categorized into field micro-sprinkler systems, fruit trees micro-sprinkler systems, and greenhouse hanging micro-sprinkler systems.
Micro-sprinkler irrigation has the following characteristics:
1.Good anti-clogging performance
2.Improves the growth environment of crops, improves crop yield and quality.
Gravity drip irrigation
Gravity drip irrigation is being accepted by more and more users due to its various strengths. It has a very low working pressure, a uniform water supply, an efficient water use, a wide range of applicable conditions, and a noticeable water droplets production efficiency.
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Gravity drip irrigation has the following characteristics:
1.Very low pressure head (lm).
2.Saves 50% of water compared to original water use.
3.Micro flow (1/10 of the flow rate of regular emitters), micro emitters provide continuous capillary water flow and have a high water utilization efficiency.
4.Under the same flow rate conditions, a gravity drip irrigation system can increase the irrigation area by 10 times compared to conventional drip irrigation systems.
5.Allows the soil system to create the optimal water to air ratio for crop growth. This increases root activity and nutrient absorption.
6.The system can also work with a pressurized water source.
Small tube flow irrigation
This is a type of micro-irrigation system. This system is designed to mainly tackle the problem of emitters blockage and the low agricultural management level provided by micro-irrigation systems made in China. It departs from the common flow size of micro- irrigation emitters by replacing microtubing emitters with small plastic tubes. This is supplemented by field seepage ditches, forming a micro-irrigation system that is based on small tube flow irrigation and that conforms to real life requirements. Small tube flow irrigation uses 4mm plastic tubes connected to capillary tubes as the emitter. It locally moisturizes the soil surrounding the crops in the form of small streams (jets). For tall fruit trees, there should be a small water ditch surrounding the trunk, so that the soil surrounding the fruit tree will be moisturized evenly. The flow rate of small tube emitters is between 80 to 250 L/h.
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This system has the following advantages:
1.Minimal blockage problems; simple water treatment process
5.Easy operation and management
This technique is especially suitable for the irrigation of fruit trees.