manual of yacht and boat sailing and architecture

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MANUAL OF YACHT AND BOAT SAILING AND ARCHITECTUREDIXON KEMP (11th and final edition, 1913)

A.Aboard.-Inside a ship or on the deck of a ship. "Come aboard, sir," is a sailor's way of reporting himself on board after leave of absence. To run or fall aboard a vessel is for one vessel to come into collision with another. A sail is said to fall aboard when, from the lightness of the wind or other causes, it ceases to blow out. To haul the boom aboard is to haul the boom in by the mainsheet from off the lee quarter. About.-Having tacked. "She's about!" she is going to tack or has tacked. "Ready about" is the signal given for the men to prepare to tack the ship. "About ship!" or "'Bout ship !" is the order given to tack, that is to put the vessel on the opposite tack to the one she is on when the order is given to tack. To go about is to tack. Abreast.-Synonymous with "Abeam." Side by side. To Breast.-- To come abreast.

Absence Flag.-A rectangular blue flag hoisted below the starboard crosstree to denote that the owner is not on board the yacht. When the owner steps on board the flag is lowered. This is an American custom which is gradually being adopted in Europe. It is a most useful regulation.

Accommodation. The cabins of a vessel. Accommodation Ladder.-A side ladder, with platform, for boarding vessels. In the case of yachts, they are usually made to fold up on the bulwarks when the yacht is under way. Acker. A tide coming on the top of another tide. Ackers' Scale.-A graduated time allowance on a tonnage incidence computed by the late Mr. G. Holland Ackers in 1850, long since superseded by other scales. A-Cock Bill or Cock Bill.-An anchor hanging from the cat head ready to let go. The situation of yards when one arm is topped up as a sign of mourning. Across Tide.-Crossing the stream of the tide so that it comes broadside on. If a vessel in beating to windward crosses a tide fairly at right angles on one tack, she will stem it on the next or have it stern on, according to whether the tide be lee-going or weathergoing. (See "Weather-tide.") Admeasurement.-An old-fashioned expression for the builder's tonnage of a ship calculated by length and breadth, and abbreviated O.M. (old measurement) and B.M. (Builder's Measurement). Admiral.-The highest rank in the Navy. Formerly there were admirals of the red, white, and blue, with the intermediate ranks of vice and rear of the red, white, and blue. When the white ensign was taken exclusively for the Royal Navy in 1857, the red, white, and blue divisions were done away with. Admirals now fly a St. George's Jack, which is a white square flag with red St. George cross in it at the main, fore, or mizen, according to their rank. A vice-admiral has a red ball in the upper (hoist) canton of the flag; a rear-admiral two balls.

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Admiral of the Fleet.-An honorary distinction bestowed on admirals for long service, &c. If an admiral of the fleet has a command, he hoists the "union" at the main. Admiral of the Royal Yacht Squadron.-His Majesty the King is Admiral of the R.Y.S., and flies the St. George's Jack with the Imperial crown in the centre of the cross. Admiralty Flag.-A red flag with yellow fouled anchor (horizontal) in it, flown by the Sovereign and Lords of the Admiralty. Admiralty Warrants.-Warrants granted to clubs and the members thereof, granting permission to fly the white ensign, or the blue ensign, or the red ensign with device on it. The Admiralty warrants granted to yachts are of two kinds: (1) The Warrant granted to the Club. (2) The Warrant granted to the individual Yacht owner who is a member of the Club. Thus in order that a yacht may have the right to fly X the White Ensign, Y the Blue Ensign, or the Blue ensign with a device, or Z the Red Ensign with a device it is necessary that the club to which the owner belongs must hold Warrant No. 1 and that the owner must obtain through the secretary of the club and hold for his yacht Warrant No. 2. Warrants will only be granted to yachts which are registered according to the provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act. Adrift.-Floating with the tide. Generally driving about without control. Also a vessel is said to be adrift when she breaks away from her moorings, warps, &c. The term is also applied to loose spars rolling about the deck; sheets or ropes which are not belayed, &c. Afloat.-The state of being waterborne after being aground. To be on board ship. Afore. The contrary of abaft. Towards the forward end of anything.

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Aft.-An abbreviation of abaft, generally applied to the stern. To go aft is to walk towards the stern; to launch aft is to move a spar or anything else towards the stern. To haul aft the sheets is to bring the clew of the sail more aboard by hauling on the sheets. After. The state of being aft, as after-sail, after-leech, after-side, &c. After Body. The part of a vessel abaft her midship section. After End.-The stern end of a vessel or anything else, or the end of anything nearest the stern of a vessel. After-Guard.-Men stationed aft to work sheets, &c. In racing yachts, if there be any amateurs on board, they are generally made use of as an after-guard. In merchant ships the ordinary seamen or landsmen enjoy the distinction. After-most. A thing or point situated the most aft of all. Afternoon Watch. The watch between noon and four o'clock. After Part. The stern extremities of a vessel or anything else. After Peak.-The hold of a vessel near the run. A small cuddy or locker made in the run of a boat aft. After Rake.-Contrary to fore rake. The rake or overhang the stern post has abaft the heel of the keel. To incline sternwards. Aftward. Towards the stern; contrary to forward.

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Against the Sun.-An expression used to show how a rope is coiled: from right to left is against the sun, from left to right is with the sun. The wind is said to blow against the sun when it comes from the westward, and to back when it changes from west to east by the south. Agreement.-The document executed, when a vessel is built, by the builder and the person for whom the vessel is being built. The following is a form of agreement which has been used: [The specification relates to a wood yacht of about 22 tons; deleted, it's very long.] Agreement with Crew.-A form of agreement provided by the Board of Trade for yacht sailors to "sign articles" on. Aground.-A vessel is said to be aground when her keel or bottom rests on the ground. Ahead. Forward; in advance of. Ahoy.-An interjection used to attract attention . In hailing a vessel, as "Cetonia Ahoy!" A-Hull.-A ship under bare poles, with her helm lashed a-lee. An abandoned ship. Airtight Cases for Small Boats.-By airtight cases are meant cases that will keep out water. The most general form of case is made of zinc, copper, or Muntz metal. Macintosh bags have been used; they are put inside wood lockers, and then inflated, the object of inflation being of course to fill the lockers, and thus practically making the lockers impervious to the influx of water. As any kind of bag is liable to be punctured or otherwise damaged, metal cases are to be preferred -- they should be fitted inside wood lockers. To render a boat unsubmergeable she must be provided

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with cases which will displace a quantity of water equal to the weight of the material used in the construction of the boat or which may be on board and will not float. Usually an ordinary fir planked boat will not sink if filled with water, the gunwale just showing above the surface; if, however, she has ballast on board or other weight, she would sink. Also the spare buoyancy would not generally be sufficient to support her crew. A ton of salt water is equal to 35 cubic feet of the same: now suppose a boat 16ft. long and 6ft. broad weighed 15cwt (3/4 ton) with all passengers, gear, airtight cases. &c., on board, then she would require airtight cases equal in bulk to 26-1/4 cubic feet, as there are 26-1/4 cubic feet of water to 3/4-ton weight. But it may be taken that the wood material used in the construction of the boat, the spars, and wood cases, would be self-supporting. Say that these weighed 5cwt, then 10cwt. (1/2-ton) would remain to be supported; 1/2 a ton is equal to 17-1/2 cubic feet. A locker 6ft. long, 2ft. broad, and 1ft. 6in. deep would contain 18 cubic feet, and so would support the boat with her passengers on board, or prevent her sinking if filled to the gunwale with water. Of course it would be rather awkward to have such a large locker as this in so small a boat, and the airtight spaces are usually contrived by having a number of lockers, some under the thwarts, in the bow end and stern end of the boat, and sometimes above the thwarts under the gunwales. Some boats are made unsubmergeable by a cork belting fixed outside below the gunwale. One ton of cork is equal to 150 cubic feet of the same, and will support 3-1/4 tons in water. Thus, roughly, cork will support three times its own weight in water. Supposing it is sought to support a boat equal to 10cwt., as stated above; then a belting of cork will have to be used equal to 17-1/2 cubic feet, plus a quantity equal to the weight of the bulk of the cork. Say the boat is 16ft. long, and the measurement round the gunwales will be 32ft. A tube 32ft. long to contain 17-1/2 cubic feet would require to be 10-1/4 inches in diameter. The 17-1/2 cubic feet of cork would weigh (17.5 x 15) 262-1/2lb. equal to 4 cubic feet of salt water, and so an addition would have to be made to the tubing to that extent. Thus, in round numbers, 22 cubic feet of cork would be required to support 10cwt. net. A tube 32ft. long and 11in. in diameter would contain 22.0 cubic feet. The tubes that contain the cork are usually made of canvas and painted. The weight of the canvas tube would have to be added to the general weight to be supported. Solid cork should be used, and not co