glyph of a sailing boat
Post on 22-Jan-2015
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONPETROGLYPH OF A SAILING BOAT (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC) Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, firstname.lastname@example.org
- 1. Email: email@example.comOctober 26, 2009PETROGLYPH OF A SAILING BOAT (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)Dr. R.M. de Jonge , firstname.lastname@example.orgIntroduction The AAPS is the Ancient Artifact Preservation Society. It held its First Conference on Ancient Copper in the town of Houghton, on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, July 10-12, 2009 (Refs.1-3). One of the activities during the conference was a visit to the petroglyphs near Copper Harbor, on the northern tip of Keweenaw Peninsula. The most beautiful glyph is a hugh sailing boat, shown in Fig.1. In antiquity, the natural harbor of this town was used for the transport of copper ingots to Lake Michigan, and further south along the Mississippi River, as well as all the way to the east, to the Saint Lawrence River. It was also important for reaching Isle Royale, some 50 miles to the northeast, another area of extensive mining operations (Refs.4,5,20-22).The petroglyph site near Copper Harbor is west of town near the end of the local bay. The glyph of the sailing boat has a width of 36cm, and a height of 17.5cm, including the top of the mast 19 cm. The hull of the ship has a height of 7cm, including the lower part of the mast almost 11cm. The sail has a width of 14.5cm. The carved lines are not V-shaped, but more U-shaped, having an upper width of 3.5 mm, and a depth of 2 mm. The carving was made on the ground, on a flat, natural area of the bedrock, consisting of sandstone. It is an oblong area of stone, having a height varying from roughly 30 to 60cm (Ref.3).The sailing boat should be considered as seaworthy (Refs.6,7). Some dimensions of this large boat are interesting. The length of the hull equals five times the height of the sail. The length of the sail equals the height of the mast, and both are twice the height of the sail. The height of the mast equals six times the width (or height) of the lower part of it, below the sail.- Finally, it should be noted, that the carved line within the sail makes a long zigzag all the way to the top. For the time being, it appears to be a mysterious feature of this petroglyph.When studying the glyph, it appears that the left edge of the sail has been accidently flaked off (although it might have been done on purpose). Probably, it already happened when the glyph was carved, and apparently, people decided to make the best of the situation. However, it is also possible that the flaking off happened in a (much) later time period. In that case a careful restau- ration may now be observed.- Note, that a recent flaking off occurred near the sail, at the right si- de above. It just damaged a tiny part of the upper right corner of the glyph.Date of the Glyph The hull of the boat consists of five rows of planks, and the sail appears to be made of seven strips of cloth. When studying these horizontal elements of the carving, it appears to us, that in first instance, a dynasty encoding is most likely to be intended (Refs.8-10). Including the lower part of the mast the hull consists of 5+1= 6 elements, encoding the first six dynasties of Egypt. These are known to us as the Old Kingdom. The 5 rows of planks correspond to the first five dy- nasties, when the ancient Egyptian civilization flourished. The lower part of the mast corres- ponds to the 6th Dynasty, when the culture of Egypt was declining.
2. The sail has seven strips of cloth, encoding the next, seven dynasties. It appears, that the upper strip provides the approximate date of the glyph. It corresponds to the 6+7= 13th Dynasty (c. 1794-1641 BC). The date of the glyph appears to coincide with the end of this dynasty, c.1640 BC.- Note, that the top of the mast peaks in two layers, which correspond to the 12th and 13th Dynasties. It is correct, that the culture of the Middle Kingdom started to decline at the end of the 12th Dynasty, a process which continued in the 13th Dynasty. Note also, that the bottom of the mast was placed on the fourth layer of the hull. It is correct, that the culture of the Old Kingdom started to decline at the end of the 5th Dynasty, a process which continued in the 6th Dynasty.Round Trip Because of the dynasty encodings, it appears that the sailing voyage started at the Nile Delta of Egypt, at 30N. Including the lower part of the mast, the hull consists of 5+1= 6 elements, cor- responding to the Strait of Gibraltar, 6 to the north, at 30+6= 36N. The carving of the ship is applied on the rock in such a way, that the top of the mast is pointing south. So, it appears, that people choose for the Southern Crossing of the Ocean, which is most convenient, indeed (Refs.8-13).The whole ship has 6+7= 13 elements, corresponding to the mouth of the Gambia River, West Africa, at 13N. However, it also consists of two big parts (the hull and the sail), encoding the southern Cape Verde Islands, 2 to the north, at 13+2= 15N. The sailing direction from these is- lands, with the wind and the current, corresponds to the latitude of the Nile Delta, 30SSW. The sailing boat consists of two parts, encoding the sailing distance of 2 (Egyptian) Moiras= 20. The hull has 5 layers, encoding the place of arrival, Cape So Rock (the Holy Rock), Brazil, at 5S.Including the mast the hull consists of 5+1= 6 elements, corresponding to the north coast of Suri- name (former Dutch Guyana), at 6N. The whole ship has 6+7= 13 elements, encoding the North Cape of South America, at 13N. It has two big parts, corresponding to Cape Gracias Dios, the east cape of Honduras, at 13+2= 15N. The whole ship has 13 elements, encoding the sailing direction from Cape Catoche, Yucatan, to the SE Cape of Cuba, 13ENE. The ship consists of two parts, corresponding to the sailing distance of 2 moiras= 2, equal to the distance from the north coast of Cuba to Florida. Finally, one sailed to the Mississippi Delta, at 30N, the same latitude as the Nile Delta.The glyph of the sailing boat is located at Copper Harbor, one of the most important natural har- bors for the transport of copper ingots in the area. It consists of 6+7= 13 elements, encoding both the latitude of 30+13= 43N, and the complementary latitude of 90-43= 47N, exactly at the le- vel of Copper Harbor. Most ingots were shipped along the Mississippi River to the south. The sail consists of 7 strips of cloth, encoding the important confluence with the Ohio River, 7 abo- ve the Mississippi Delta, at 30+7= 37N (Refs.8,14). The sailing boat consists of two parts, also encoding the island of Bermuda in the Ocean, 2 above the Delta, at 30+2= 32N. So, part of the copper was transported via Bermuda to the Azores.The hull of the boat has 5 layers, corresponding to Cape Hatteras South, at 30+5= 35N. Inclu- ding the lower part of the mast, it contains 5+1= 6 elements, corresponding to Cape Hatteras North, at 30+6= 36N. Both are the east capes of the US. The whole ship has 13 elements, enco- ding Americas Stonehenge, New Hampshire, and the south point of Nova Scotia, at 30+13= 43N. Americas Stonehenge is the most important megalithic monument of North America (c.2400 BC). It was a training center for learning how to cross the Ocean. Part of the copper ingots arrived here from the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River (Refs.8,15,16). 3. From the south point of Nova Scotia people sailed in the direction of the Azores. One oriented at Cape Race, Newfoundland, which is the East Cape of North America, at the complementary la- titude of 90-43= 47N. This is the latitude of Copper Harbor, where the glyph of the sailing boat is situated. The two big parts of the ship correspond to the initial sailing direction (ISD) from Ca- pe Race to the two islands of the West Azores, 20ESE, with the wind and the current, as well as the sailing distance of 2 Moiras= 20. The two parts also encode the Central Azores, 2 above the Strait of Gibraltar, at 36+2= 38N, as well as the two islands of the East Azores, and finally, the two islands of Madeira.Copper Trade When studying the glyph of the sailing boat, it turns out that both ends of the ship are different. The left end is high, protecting the sailors and the cargo from the waves of the sea. So, the left end is the stem or the fore-part of the ship, and the right end is the stern or the hind-part. The top of the mast is pointing south, as mentioned earlier, so the ship is sailing to the east. This means that the ship is sailing home, fully loaded with copper ingots (Refs.4,5,8,13)! Note, that the rec- tangular sail closely resembles a copper ingot, to illustrate this statement. The ship has a total of 13 elements, corresponding to the latitude of Americas Stonehenge, N.H., and the south point of Nova Scotia, at 30+13= 43N (Refs.8,15,16). It is the complementary latitude of Copper Harbor, at 90-47= 43N. So, the boat is leaving the East Coast of North America to cross the Atlantic O- cean.There are two important trade routes in North America: one going south to the Mississippi Delta, and one going east to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. The carving of the ship is applied on the rock in such a way, that the top of the mast is pointing south. On top of the mast are two arrows, each consisting of two pieces of line. The mast and the sail contain together 1+7= 8 ele- ments, and the hull contains 5 elements. The mast and the sail point south. So, it appears that 8/13x100= 62% of the copper was shipped to the Delta. The hull of the ship is pointing to the east. The length of the hull equals five times the height of the sail, confirming the 5 elements. So, 5/13x100= 38% of the copper was transported to the Bay of Saint Lawrence.- A source from c. 1458 BC reports percentages of 61%, and 39%, respectively, at this later date (Ref.17).The dynasty encodings suggest, that the boat is an Egyptian trading vessel from the Nile Delta, at 30N. This latitude corresponds with the 30 days of a month. The 5 rows of planks and the 7 strips of cloth form together 5+7= 12 elements, corresponding to the 12 month