lecture, ancient egypt

Download Lecture, Ancient Egypt

Post on 19-May-2015




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • 1. The Art of Ancient EgyptArtfortheAfterlifeSeated Scribeca. 2600 BCEPainted limestone Old Kingdomhttp://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/seated-scribe.html

2. The Measure of a Man Vanessa Beecroft, VB45.007.DR, 2001c-print Illustration of the Egyptian canon of proportions 3. EgyptomaniaLuxor HotelLas Vegas, NVSteve Martin, King Tut, SNL, 1979http://www.hulu.com/watch/55342ElizabethTaylorCleopatra1963Howard Carter, Tutankhamens Tomb, 1923http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZWB5-aXMXQ The Bangles, Walk Like an Egyptian, 1986 4. EgyptDates and Places: 3500-1000BCE Nile River Valley (fertile--then a lush land ofmarshes and ridges)People: Divine rulers Agriculture Hieroglyphic writing system Polytheism (many gods)Map of Ancient Egypt 5. EgyptThemes: Gods Rulers Life and death (the afterlife) OfferingsForms: Stone and mud brick construction Natural and conceptual treatments offigures Strict adherence to Egyptian canonMenkaure and(rule of representation according to Khamerernebty(?),unity of measurement)ca. 2490-2472BCE. Registers of spaceFig. 1-27. Hierarchy of scale 6. Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power Narmer (crown of Lower Egypt)Hathor(divinemother) BeheadedNarmer enemies(crown ofUpperEgypt) Horus (protectorPapyrusCircular of pharaohs)(Lower depressionEgypt) (surrounded Slain by feline enemies Heads)Palette of King Narmer, ca. 3000-2920BCE, Predynastic period 7. Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power Ceremonial palette (stone slab withcircular depression) commonly usedto prepare eye makeup Marks transition from prehistorical tohistorical Egypt Story of unification of Upper andLower Egypt Divine ruler (Narmer) and gods(Hathor (cow), Horus (falcon), etc) Symbols of authority Canon of proportions (would last for Palette of King Narmer, ca.3,000 yrs)3000-2920BCE. Fig. 1-22 Hierarchy of scale (Narmer muchlarger than attendants and enemies) Composite view (head profile, chestfrontal, legs in profile Hieroglyphs (Narmers name) 8. Regarding the Pain of Others (Sontag)from Abu Ghraib Prison Iraq, 2004Francisco de Goya, Disasters of War (Whatmore can be done?), 1810-20, etching 9. Egypt Tombs & the Afterlife Knowledge of Egypt from tombs &burial artifacts Preoccupation with afterlife Mastaba (stone or brick structureerected over burial chamber) Shaft connected tomb with outsideworld (so ka (spirit) could escape) Contained chambers &compartments (statues, paintings,reliefs, etc. to accompany dead) Axis mundi (ziggurat) Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid andmortuary precint of Djoser, 2630- 2611BCE. Fig. 1-24.Ziggurat at Ur,ca. 2100BCE. Fig. 1-11. 10. Egypt - MummificationKing Tuts Death maskReconstruction of King Tuts face by Elisabeth Dayneshttp://www.daynes.com/en/home.php http://fieldmuseum.org/explore/multimedia/video-gilded-lady-mummy 11. Egypt SpatialHierarchies(Old Kingdom) Hammurabi and Shamash, detail of the stele with Law Code of Hammurabi ca. 1780BCE, Babylon (Ancient Near East)Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, 4th Dynasty, ca. 2551-2528BCE. Fig. 1-1. 12. Egypt Spatial Hierarchies Great Sphinx, Gizeh plateau, ca. 2551-2528BCE Funerary precinct with burialpyramids and temples (enormousexpense, built over 75 yrs) Pyramid symbol of god Re (god ofthe sun, reborn daily) Testifies to kings power (overseehuge workforce quarrying,carrying, and dressing stone(wooden rollers/sleds) Masonry (ashlar) constructionwith internal chambers (hoisted Man-headed lion (image ofup on ramps with ropes/pulleys) Khafre & symbol of Re) Stone facing reflected sunFernand KhnopffThe Sphinx(The Caress)1896oil on canvas 13. Egypt: Old KingdomTomb Sculpture The Measure of a Man(God and King) Khafre EnthronedGizeh, Egypt 4th Dynastydiorite, 5 ft 6 ca. 2500 BCE 14. Old Kingdom Tomb Sculpture Ka sculpture for kings temple(Valley of Kings) Stone (diorite) used for tombstatuary Quarried 400 miles up river Attributes of pharaoh (nemesheaddress (uraeus cobra), kilt,false beard) Enthroned (resembles twolions bodies) Between legs intertwined lotusand papyrus (symbolize unitedEgypt) Horus (protector) behind head Khafre Enthroned Idealized body (youthful divineGizeh, Egypt4th Dynastyleader)diorite, 5 ft 6 Compact, frontal, solid,ca. 2500 BCEsymmetrical (eternal power) 15. Egypt - OldKingdom TombSculptureTi Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, painted limestone in mastaba of Ti, Saqqara4 high, Egypt, ca. 2450 BCE 16. Egypt - Old KingdomTomb Sculpture Painted relief for tomb of Ti One of many depictions ofagriculture and hunting Hippopotamus hunt (an allegory forDetail Hall ofdefeat of evil)Bulls Ti and attendants in thick grove of Lascauxca. 25,000 BCEpapyrus Animals (birds, foxes, fish,hippopotami) at top and bottom Strict adherence to canon (systemof proportions) in TiTi Watching aHippopotamus Hunt, Composite (conceptual) painted limestone relief inrepresentation (head in profile,mastaba of Ti, Saqqara4 high, Egypt, ca. 2450chest frontal, legs in profile)BCE Timeliness and enduring power in Victory Stele of Naram-SinTis aloof stance(detail) ca. 2254-2218BCE 17. Egypt NewKingdomArchitectureColonnade(row of columns usuallyspanned by lintels above)Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut,Deir el-Bahri, New Kingdom, ca.1473 BCESphinx of Hatshepsut, NewKingdom, ca. 1473 BCE 18. Hypostyle hall ClerestoryEgypt NewKingdom22Architecture CapitalAmiens66Cathedral13th century ColumnCEFranceModel of thehypostyle hallStonehenge,Temple of Salisbury PlainAmen-Re WiltshireKarnak, Egypt Englandca. 1290 BCE 2550 1600BCE 19. Egypt - Defying theCanon (New KingdomSculpture)AkhenatonTemple ofAtonKarnak, Egyptca. 1350 BCEsandstone13 high 20. Egypt Defying the Canon New Kingdom pharaoh Changed name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaton AkhenatonTemple ofAton In honor of Aton (only god, sun)Karnak Declared monotheism and movedca. 1350 BCE temple down river (to Akhenaton) 13 high Brief departure from strict adherence to canon Naturalism and realism Androgynous & effeminate representation (thin, elongated face and arms, swollen belly, hips) Identifying himself with Aton (not represented naturalistically but as sun itself)?The Royal FamilyAkhenaton, Nefertitiand their family 21. Egypt Defying theCanonThutmose, Nefertiti, ca.1353-1335BCE. Painted limestone, 18, Fig. 1-34. 22. Egypt Defying the Canon Akhenatons wife Name means The Beautiful One Has Come Influential queen (shared power?) Named sculptor (Thutmose) Deliberately unfinished (left eye not inlaid) Ideal beauty over true likeness Possibly resembles flower (enlarged headover thin, delicate neck)Thutmose, Nefertiti, Painted limestone 18 tallca. 1353-1335BCE