Learning and Technology Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Learning and Technology Computer Supported Collaborative Learning </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Paradigms in Educational Computing 60s Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) 70s Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) 80s Interactive Learning Environments (ILEs) 90s Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Theories of Collaborative Learning Sociocognitive theory Jean Piaget Wilhelm Doise &amp; Gabriel Mugny Sociocultural theory Lev Vygotsky Barbara Rogoff Situated learning Lev Vygotsky Jean Lave </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Socio-Cognitive Theory Piagetian theory Piaget (1926, 1932) Restructuring of prior knowledge requires challenging existing views and coordinating old with new knowledge (Piaget, 1977) These conditions will be present if children interact with peers of differing but also inadequate views (Piaget, 1932) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Learning mechanisms Social interaction leads to a recognition of alternative perspectives Recognition of alternative perspectives leads to mutual challenge (cognitive conflict) Mutual challenge of perspectives motivates coordination of alternatives to arrive at a solution </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Learning mechanisms Inter-individual conflict is a more powerful stimulus for cognitive change than intra-individual conflict Social conflict is harder to ignore than individual conflict Partner can provide cues for solving the problem The child is more likely to be actively involved in the joint task </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Task characteristics Perspective-taking tasks Conservation and coordination tasks Planning tasks Problem-solving tasks </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Perspective Taking Piagets three mountains task a b c </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Implications for learning "Criticism is born of discussion, and discussion is only possible among equals" (Piaget, 1932, p. 409) Participants should be at an equivalent intellectual level (shared understanding) Participants should recognise that they should not contradict themselves Participants should recognise the need to reach agreement or find ways of justifying their different points of view Reciprocity between participants </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Implications for learning Tasks should be designed to promote differences in perspectives or solutions Tasks should involve opportunity for discussion of competing hypotheses or solutions Participants should be at equivalent intellectual levels </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Implications for learning Symmetrical or assymmetrical peers? Differing vs similar views What is meant by "cognitive conflict"? Conflict in predictions vs conflict in conceptions Howe et al. (1993) Equivalence in developmental level vs equivalence in expertise Verba &amp; Winnykamen (1992) </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> How can technology help? Catalyst for discussion of competing solutions Role differentiation Making hypotheses and predictions explicit Providing opportunities to disconfirm hypotheses or obtain correct solutions </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Sociocultural Theories "What children can do with others today, they can do alone tomorrow" (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 104) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Learning mechanisms Development proceeds from the inter-psychological to the intra-psychological Focus on the joint construction (co-construction) of solutions Attempts to coordinate perspectives and co-construct hypotheses to arrive at a joint answer are more valuable than simply differences in perspectives </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Learning mechanisms Causal relationship between the social and the cognitive The "zone of proximal development" The "general genetic law of cultural development" Semiotic mediation </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> The Zone of Proximal Development "...the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers." (Vygotsky, 1978) </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> The Zone of Proximal Development ZOPD as a "leading activity" (Leontiev) Related ideas Scaffolding (Bruner) Contingent instruction (Wood, Bruner &amp; Ross, 1976) Apprenticeship (Rogoff, 1990) </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> The Genetic Law of Cultural Development Development appears on two planes: first on the inter-psychological, then on the intra-psychological (Vygotsky) The individual's appropriation of what takes place on the social plane involves an active transformation </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Internalisation Properties of the social world are not simply transferred "The process of internalisation is not the transferral of an external activity to a preexisting, internal 'plane of consciousness': it is the process in which this internal plane is formed." (Leontiev, 1981, p. 57) </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Semiotic mediation Mediation as a "psychological tool" Intersubjectivity Vygotsky intersubjectivity as a process that takes place between people Piaget perspective-taking &amp; decentration as individual processes working on socially-derived information </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Task characteristics Skill acquisition Joint planning &amp; co-construction Memory Task x age interactions? </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Implications for learning Assymmetrical dyads (adult or more competent peer) vs symmetrical dyads Peer tutoring vs peer collaboration Peer tutoring most effective when learners need to acquire new information or skills that do not extend beyond their conceptual reach (Damon, 1984; Rogoff, 1990) Differences in domain expertise vs differences in general intellectual level Developmental constraints? </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Development of collaborative learning </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Skills underlying effective collaboration and peer tutoring Coordinating mental representations Piaget; Flavell; Doise &amp; Mugny Understanding mental states Tomasello Self- and other-regulation Vygotsky; Rogoff Executive function &amp; self-inhibition Russell </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Predictions Effective tutoring involves Skill in the task Planning ahead Monitoring learners actions Modifying next step Inhibiting temptation to do the task Clear changes should emerge between 3 and 7 years </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Peer tutoring in 3-7 year olds </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Proportion of instructional moves </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Contingent Instruction </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Rate of Contingent Instruction </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Summary Children who found the task easier to learn were more effective tutors Task sharing difficult for 3 &amp; 5 year olds Systematic planning emerges at 5 years High proportion of self-regulatory speech in 3 &amp; 5 year olds; replaced by other-regulation by 7 years 3 &amp; 5 year olds teach by demonstration; 7 year olds better at watching and telling (self-inhibition) 7 year olds were highly contingent in tutoring 5 year olds learn effectively from observing others </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Theory of Mind and Collaborative Play </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Predictions Children who pass ToM (TT pairs) should show greater sustainment of shared task focus than those who fail (XX pairs) TT pairs should show greater levels of reciprocity in interactions than XX pairs Pairing a child who fails ToM with one who passes (TX) should improve the dyads collaboration over XX pairs </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Method 24 same-gender friendship pairs TT (both pass)4;0 - 5;0 TX (pass/fail)3;10 - 4;11 XX (fail/fail)3;6 - 4;11 15-20 min sessions of dyadic play with props for bathing/changing a doll Videotapes coded for Joint attention Shared task focus Reciprocity of play </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Coding Scheme </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Social Play </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Coding of play bids </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Reciprocity in Play </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Summary Composition of dyads with respect to ToM status leads to differences in quality of social play XX pairs show less co-ordinated play and joint attention TT and TX pairs engage in more shared visual attention and co-ordinated play XX pairs initiate fewer play bids than TT and TX pairs XX pairs show less reciprocity in play bids than TT and TX pairs TT pairs show more reciprocal bid sequences than TX pairs </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Conclusions The ability of a child to provide contingent support for a peers learning emerges at 6-7 years Developmental trend in the emergence of sustained task sharing, self- and other- regulation between 3 and 7 years Emergence of collaborative learning &amp; contingent tutoring linked to development of Understanding mental states in others Self-regulation Skills in referential communication </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> How can technology help? Instructional support Guided discovery learning Scaffolding Contingent control of instruction Tools for (re)mediation </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Situated Learning The mutual knowledge problem Communication depends upon a "common ground" of mutually-held knowledge (Krauss &amp; Fussell, 1990) Distributed cognition Joint construction of a problem interpretation (Hutchins, 1991; Pea, 1993) Situated cognition Competent performance of real word tasks "is an emergent property of moment-by-moment interactions between actors, and between actors and the environments of their action" (Suchman, 1987, p. 179) </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Problems for cognitive psychology Practical action is not always driven by plans People arent very good at formal reasoning Transfer of knowledge from context to context is hard to achieve Ecological validity is problematic because we treat context as a nuisance variable </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Characteristics of a contextual approach recognition of the relationship between psychological processes and their social, cultural and historical settings explanation of how different contexts create and reflect different forms of mental functioning explanation of how human action is mediated via context </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> The culture of learning just plain folks causal stories situations negotiable meanings socially constructed understanding students laws symbols fixed meanings immutable concepts practitioners causal models conceptual situations negotiable meanings socially constructed understanding </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> "take three-quarters of two-thirds of a cup of cottage cheese" 3/4 x 2/3 OR Situated Problem Solving </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Cognition and Context situations shape activities relation between the problem solver and the problem salience of the activity varies in different settings theories of situated cognition do not preclude knowledge which is invariant across related situations (i.e., abstractions); they argue instead that knowledge in the abstract is insufficent for competent practice </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Implications for Learning Learning occurs most effectively in situations resembling those of eventual practice Learning should involve "legitimate peripheral participation" in communities of practice(Lave &amp; Wenger, 1991) Learning occurs when the learner is confronted with a "problematic" situation Argument for collaboration Situated action is inherently social Learning is a special case of situated action </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> How can technology help? Technology can provide access to authentic situations of practice Example - Schoolchildren interacting with scientists over the Internet </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Dimensions of CSCL Applications Locus of use (space) Intra-classroom Inter-classroom Extra-classroom Context of use (time) Synchronous Asynchronous Role of Technology Problem Presentation Mediated Communication Representational Formalism Etc. </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Shared ARK Supporting co-construction of problem solutions Through shared workspaces multiple representations joint tasks structured discussion </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> </ul>

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