assessing and promoting computer-supported collaborative learning

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Anne Meier

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  • 1. Assessing and promoting computer-supported collaborative learning Anne MeierUniversity of Freiburg, Institute of Psychology [email_address]

2.

  • Introduction to CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning)
  • Assessing CSCL learning processes
  • Supporting CSCL learning processes
  • Example study: adaptive support for knowledge co-construction

Overview 3. The CSCL community

  • a short history of CSCL
    • seeds in the 1980s, e.g. 1989 NATO-sponsored workshop computer-supported collaborative learning (Maratea, Italy)
    • since 1995: bi-annualCSCL conferences
    • since 2003: CSCL community part ofInternational Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS)
  • own journal:International Journal of CSCL(ijCSCL) published by Springer since 2006
  • highlyinterdisciplinarycommunity

4. Introduction to CSCL

  • CSCL researchers study:
    • How people can learn together with the help of computers (Stahl, Koschmann, & Suthers, 2007)
    • How technology can facilitate the sharing and creation of knowledge and expertise through peer interaction and group learning processes (Restra & Laferrire, 2007)

5.

  • advantages/strengths
  • challenges/pitfalls

What is your experience with (computer-supported) collaborative learning? 6.

  • Neo-Piagetian perspective
    • learning =cognitive restructuring
    • resolving socio-cognitive conflict arising from peer collaboration
  • Cognitive elaboration perspective
    • learning =elaboration and integration of knowledge
    • very important: constructing explanations
  • Neo-Vygotskian perspective
    • learning =appropriation, internalization
    • knowledge co-construction; scaffolding and fading
  • Situated learning perspective
    • learning =increasingly central participation in a community of practice
    • distributed cognition: persons, tools, symbols, artefacts,

What makes collaborative learning effective? See for example: Cohen, 1994; Dillenbourg et al., 1995; Fischer, 2002; Webb & Palincsar, 1996) 7.

  • Motivational process loss(e.g. Salomon & Globerson, 1989)
    • Free-rider effect (social loafing)
    • Sucker effect
  • Production blocking
    • having to wait for others to finish their turn
    • e.g. in brainstorming(Diehl & Stroebe, 1987)
  • Biased information sampling(e.g. Brodbeck et al., 2007; Stasser & Titus, 1985))
    • neglecting individuals unique knowledge
    • striving for consensus rather than understanding
  • Putting people in a (computer-supported) group does not mean that they will collaborate well!

Pitfalls of collaborative learning 8.

  • Introduction to CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning)
  • Assessing CSCL learning processes
    • What characterizes good computer-supported collaborative learning?
  • Supporting CSCL learning processes
  • Example study: adaptive support for knowledge co-construction

Overview 9. Cognitive, social, and affective aspects of collaboration quality in CSCL

  • Communication(Clark & Brennan, 1991)
  • Grounding
    • adapting utterances to the amount of shared knowledge/ perspective/ experience
    • establishing referential identity (e.g. of objects in a shared whiteboard, of previous messages/ contributions)
    • establishing a shared terminology
  • Conversation management
    • initiating conversations
    • managing turn-taking
    • ensuring that contributions are taken up

For additional literature/ references, please see Meier, Spada, & Rummel, 2007 10. Cognitive, social, and affective aspects of collaboration quality in CSCL

  • Joint information-processing
  • Elaborative information-processing
    • eliciting and providing elaborated explanations
    • using the partner as a resource
    • elaborating on partners contributions
  • Argumentative information-processing
    • constructing justified arguments and counterarguments
    • engaging in a critical discussion: avoiding an illusion of consensus

11. Cognitive, social, and affective aspects of collaboration quality in CSCL

  • Coordination (explicit or tacit)(e.g. Malone & Crowstone, 1994)
  • Task division
    • identifying interdependent subtasks
    • blending individual and collaborative work
  • Time management
    • agreeing on a realistic time schedule
    • monitoring the remaining time during the work process
  • Resource management
    • handling the available tools efficiently
    • agreeing on who may use a technical feature at what time

12. Cognitive, social, and affective aspects of collaboration quality in CSCL

  • Relationship management
  • maintaining equal participation
    • symmetric or complementary, depending on role structure
  • solving conflicts constructively
    • epistemic vs. social conflicts

13. Cognitive, social, and affective aspects of collaboration quality in CSCL

  • Motivation
  • individual task orientation
    • keeping up a high level of expended effort
    • volitional processes: focusing attention, exerting motivation control
  • mutual self-regulation
    • mutual encouragement
    • monitoring performance and giving feedback

14. Example: Collaboration quality rating-scheme

  • Development
    • sample fromstudy on interdisciplinary collaboration : students of psychology and medicine solving complex patient cases(Rummel & Spada, 2005)

Meier, A., Spada, H. & Rummel, N. (2007).A rating scheme for assessing the quality of computer-supported collaboration processes.International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2 , 63-86. 15. Example: Collaboration quality rating-scheme Control Room Experimental RoomI Experimental Room II 16. Example: Collaboration quality rating-scheme

  • Development
    • sample fromstudy on interdisciplinary collaboration : students of psychology and medicine solving complex patient case(Rummel & Spada, 2005)
    • data- and theory-driven analyses5 aspects/ 9 dimensions
    • for each dimension:
      • collaboration standard defined and illustrated inrating handbook
      • collaboration quality rated on 5-pointscales

17. Example: Collaboration quality rating-scheme model / script > control model-plus > model Information pooling Task division Time management Technical coordination model > control > script model-plus > model Individual task orientation Quality of joint solution (Rummel, Spada, & Hauser, 2009) Rummel rummele 18. Example: Collaboration quality rating-scheme

  • adaptation tonew CSCL setting(Synergo)(Voyiatzaki et al., 2008)
    • descriptive framework valid in this setting as well
    • But: changed operationalization of dimensions and re-anchoring of scales necessary
    • .. work in progress:
    • providingadaptive feedbackto students based on ratings of their collaboration quality
    • (Meier, Voyiatzaki, Kahrimanis, Rummel, Spada, Avouris, 2008)

19.

  • Introduction to CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning)
  • Assessing CSCL learning processes
  • Supporting CSCL learning processes
    • How can beneficial collaboration processes be facilitated?
  • Example study: adaptive support for knowledge co-construction

Overview 20. Supporting CSCL learning processes

  • Earlier approaches: supportaroundcollaboration
  • Collaboration scripts: supportduringcollabora

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