LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING Learning Communities in Higher Education

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING Learning Communities in Higher Education </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> This module is intended for a 90-minute class session. The emphasis is on active audience engagement. Module modifications are encouraged to meet specific needs. A campus may wish to remove the Howard Experience slides and insert information and data on learning communities experiences on their own campus. Whatever changes are made, presenters are encouraged to keep with the following general structure: Opening Activity (to emphasize differences between lecture and active learning formats) 30 min Learning Community Concepts 15 min Interdisciplinary Activity (to encourage participants to appreciate and value other disciplinary perspectives) 20 min The Howard Experience 15 min Module Evaluation 10 min </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Importance of Statistics (An Activity) Critical in all disciplines Required when it is not possible to directly observe or measure all values Health statistics collecting data on an entire population not feasible Business statistics collecting data from every company not feasible Transportation statistics collecting data on every vehicle not feasible Three fundamental concepts (central tendency, dispersion, and testing) </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Central Tendency Describes the data center Principal measure: average or mean </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Dispersion Describe how far data spread from the center Principal measure: variance (s 2 ) or standard deviation (s) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Testing Known as hypothesis testing Confirms statistical significance &amp; difference Many different types of tests Our focus: t-test </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Applying the t-test Form a null hypothesis Determine the alternative hypothesis (one- sided or two-sided) Compute test statistic (t) Compare test statistic To reject or not to reject that is the question! (Distribute Homework Assignment) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Importance of Statistics (A REVISED Activity) The Graduate School at Howard is interested in demographic information about its students pursuing careers in academia. What is the average age of PhD students? Does the average age vary by disciplinary area? Collecting data on every PhD student will take too much time and money The Graduate School has decided to use a sample of students to estimate answers to the questions posed this requires STATISTICS! </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Importance of Statistics REVISED This class is the sample! Write your age on a Post-it note and place in the appropriate area for your disciplinary group. Group 1: Science (Biological, Physical, Chemical), Engineering, and Mathematics Group 2: Social Science &amp; Liberal Arts </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The Importance of Statistics REVISED FIRST, find the overall mean (average age) for all students. SECOND, find the mean and standard deviation for each group. THEN, test the hypothesis that the means for the two groups are equal. (two-sided) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Importance of Statistics Activity 1 versus Activity 2 Activity 1: typical classroom (lecture &amp; out-of- class work) Activity 2: students actively involved in class (lecture interspersed in activity) </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Module Objectives To encourage faculty and future faculty to use innovative teaching methodologies and make students active learners and critical thinkers. To introduce faculty and future faculty to learning community concepts and benefits, both as participants and facilitators. (Complete &amp; submit the pre-test in your class materials.) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> LEARNING COMMUNITY CONCEPTS The Fundamentals </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> What is a Learning Community (LC)? An intentional restructuring of students time, credit, and learning experiences to build community, enhance learning, and foster connections among students, faculty, and disciplines. (Smith, MacGregor, Matthews, Gabelnick, 2004) Interdisciplinary group of students, faculty, or staff Working to enhance student learning and achievement Incorporated in any LC are diversity, culture, communication, teamwork, structure and local community connection </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Need for Learning Communities Lecturing is predominant form of teaching; is it effective? Key to learning is activity, time on task, and social interaction wit others, the active use and testing of information and ideas, and the active practicing of skills in a meaningful context. Major challenges in higher education: maximize learning account for what is learned Regional accreditation agencies require institutional assessment strategies with student learning focus </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> The Need for Learning Communities Cont Focus on learning requires shift for teaching and learning Learning can be improved by Use of technology Removal of interdisciplinary barriers Linking communication with coursework Cultivating a sense of community with shared knowledge and shared knowing </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Retention in LC is high because students are active participants in their education Assessment of LC concluded that community was the key variable in determining successful learning (FIPSE) The Need for Learning Communities Cont </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Types of Learning Communities Learning Organizations - institutions designed to create a unique learning environment Faculty LC - faculty groups committed to improving teaching and learning Student LC cohort of students enrolled in common classes, actively engaged in their learning </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> How is a LC Started? Linked Activities Linked Courses Seamless Courses Common Cohort Common Interest </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Linked Activities Cross-class dialogues planned by instructors teaching separate courses Fairly easy to plan and execute Require no changes in instruction or administration Collaboration needed for co-planning of lecture and for co-learning Accomplish faculty camaraderie and integration of curricula </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Linked Courses Semester-long coordination of collaboration Courses may be taught separately, but co- planned to emphasize parallels and reinforce joint skills and concepts Co-enrollment required Co-teaching beneficial Joint courses focus on co-learning where students learn connectedness, team work, &amp; other skills </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Seamless Courses Two or more courses joined in a single program of instruction Collaboration efforts include Co-enrollment Co-learning Co-planning Co-teaching Co-assessment This effort reflects a broader philosophy geared education, rather than a single discipline </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Common Cohort &amp; Common Interest Faculty can be grouped in a LC by cohort Junior Faculty Engineering Faculty Faculty Teaching Undergraduate Students Faculty with Research Labs Faculty can also be grouped in a LC by interest Using peer teaching in the classroom Applying brain research in graduate classes </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> LC Benefits (Student) Increased learning Improved academic performance (higher GPA) Enhanced academic skills Enhanced involvement and social connectedness Increased retention </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> LC Benefits (Faculty) Increased retention Strengthened faculty interaction Integration and continuity of curriculum Faculty development Broadened knowledge and application of various pedagogies </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> LC Challenges Faculty and administrative buy in May require greater administrative, faculty and student commitment Possible scheduling conflicts May result in loss of individual disciplines Potential forming of cliques Group participation may not be equal More time in class may be required </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Do LC Really Work? Wagner College Miami University of Ohio </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> How Inter Is the Disciplinary? (An Activity) Review Case Study Identify disciplines you believe might be involved in developing a solution Explain what role those disciplines might play Consider the role someone in your discipline might play </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Learning Communities for STEM Academic Achievement (LCSAA) Learning Community Concepts </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Project Planning Teaching experiments Shared Reading Linked Courses Interdisciplinary Seminars Student-Faculty Interaction Real-world Problems Faculty Community </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Teaching Experiments PedagogyCourseTeacher Cooperative Learning Molecular Biology Leon Dickson, Ph.D. Problem Based Learning Comparative Anatomy William Eckberg, Ph.D. Peer TeachingIntro to Civil Engineering Tori Rhoulac, Ph.D. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Setup Molecular Biology class, Dr. Dickson 5 groups, 5 students each 3 hour lab period 15 minute summarizing presentations to the whole class on a topic that was previously presented by Dr. Dickson Presentations had to make the topic clear and understandable for the other students in the class Q&amp;A, Student assessment survey </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Evaluation Student Assessment Survey questions included Did preparing and participating in this exercise improve your understanding of your topic? Did listening to other presentations improve your understanding of the topic presented? Which topic do you now understand best? Which topic do you understand least? </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Results </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> R 2 for Best Understood v. Best Lecture by Instructor = 0.117 R 2 for Best Understood v. Best Presentation by Students = 0.761 Students ranking of their own understanding of a topic corresponded more with how well student groups presented than with how well the teacher presented. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Monday, October 17, 2005- How Much Money Will I Make? Dr. Walter Lowe, Facilitator Monday, October 31, 2005- Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacology Mr. Wayne D. Johnson, II, Facilitator Monday, November 14, 2005- Critical Thinking &amp; Problem Solving Ms. Monique Peters, Facilitator Monday, November 28, 2005- Applications of Genetics, Genomics, &amp; Bioinformatics Ms. Andrea R. Allen &amp; Dr. Karen Nelson, Facilitators </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Results Q1) The seminar was informative. Q2) I now understand better how the topic can be applied specifically to me and my major. Q3) The seminar allowed me to see how science is applied in the real world. Q4) By participating in this seminar, I feel a part of a learning community of STEM students and faculty. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Decline in student attendance and participation (Reflection: require attendance as course requirement) Seminars aim to not cause additional work for students participating (Reflection: link topics to in-class subjects so connections can be emphasized beyond 90-minute seminar) </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Addition of introductory statistics to precalculus as used in Biology 101 Emphasis on Biology/Chemistry in applied problems Encouragement to form study groups Use of two semester projects on the interface of precalculus and biology or chemistry (in precalculus) Class visits by chemistry instructor Classroom teamwork </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Do you see any problems with having linked classes? If so, what are the problems? Would you recommend linked classes to friends who may enroll in Howard University next fall? Would you recommend that the university continue this effort? </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Results </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Helping Students through the Perry Scheme of Intellectual Development Shared Reading </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Focus: Perry's Scheme of Intellectual Development Student learning moves through series of fairly well-defined phases (delineated by ways they view themselves in relation to what they believe knowledge to be) Dualism Multiplicity Relativism Commitment in relativism </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Dualism; knowledge is received truth (facts, correct theories, and right answers) Multiplicity; knowledge is simply a matter of opinion Relativism; weigh evidence &amp; distinguish between weak and strong support Commitment in relativism; integrate the relatively objective, removed, and rational procedures of academia with more empathic, experimental approaches to all other aspects of their lives. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Faculty Development Discussed article and implications for STEM &amp; HBCU in bi-weekly meetings over one semester Also included Teaching experiment reflection Linked course and interdisciplinary seminar planning and reflection Teaching module development </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Evaluation Core Faculty Development Questions Q11. Technical Skill as a Teacher Q12. Total Effectiveness as a Teacher Q13. Interest in the Teaching Process Q14. Research and Scholarly Interest with Respect to Your Discipline Q15. View of Teaching as an Intellectual Pursuit Q16. Understanding of and Interest in the Scholarship of Teaching Q17. Understanding Ways to Integrate Teaching &amp; Research Experience Q18. Perspective of Teaching, Learning, &amp; Other Aspects of Higher Education Beyond the Perspective of Your Discipline </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Evaluation </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Module Objectives To encourage faculty and future faculty to use innovative teaching methodologies and make students active learners and critical thinkers. Have the presentation activities and results from Howard helped make the case? To introduce faculty and future faculty to learning community concepts and benefits, both as participants and facilitators. What is a learning community? What are benefits of participation? </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Course Module Evaluation Complete and submit post-test. Please also complete an evaluation form. Thank you for participating! </li> </ul>