klasifikasi tumbuhan

Download Klasifikasi Tumbuhan

Post on 10-Jul-2015

9.588 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

Klasifikasi Tumbuhan

Plant ClassificationMount Kinabalu Vegetation Rindita

Klasifikasi Makhluk Hidup Linnaeus: 2 Kingdom (Plantae dan Animalia) J. Hogg & Ernst Haeckel, tahun 1860-an: 3 Kingdom (Protoctista, Plantae, Animalia) Herbert F. Copeland, tahun 1938: 4 Kingdom (Monera, Protoctista, Plantae, Animalia) R.H. Whittaker, tahun 1969: 5 Kingdom (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia). Bakteri masuk ke dalam Monera dan eukariota bersel satu ke dalam Protista. Carl Woese, tahun 1980-1990: 6 Kingdom (Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia).

Recent work with DNA sequencing of the ribosomal RNA genes has shown that the bacteria are deeply divided into 2 groups: - the Eubacteria (most of the common bacteria) and the Archaebacteria (dwellers in extreme temperature, pH, salinity, etc.). This has led to the 3 domain model: life can be classified as Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, or Eukaryote. This scheme is favored by microbiologists. Problem: although the 3 domain model fits evolutionary history well, the differences between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are not easy to state for non-scientists. Taxonomists have developed a hierarchy to describe any organisms classification: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.

Skema Klasifikasi Makhluk Hidup 5 Kingdom

Studying Plant Classification1. Organising our knowledge about biodiversity o There is a huge number of flowering plants - an estimated 300,000 species. o There is a vast amount of information that botanists, ecologists, chemists, farmers, doctors, cooks and craftspeople have learnt about plants, and we need a framework to organise this knowledge. o A plant classification acts as a type of database, in which the scientific plant names are the key to unlocking this information.

What is Plant Classification? Classification is the process of grouping things together on the basis of the features they have in common. Anything can be classified. The study of plant classification is known as taxonomy (taxon means group) and it is done by specialised botanists called taxonomists.

The history of Plant Classification The earliest plant classification: their useful properties as food, medicinal or magical value, and timber strength. 1st written classification: Theoprastus (Ancient Greek, 287 BC) & Dioscorides (Materia Medica, 40 90 AD). Plant Classification in Europe: 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus binomial bomenclature. Pnylogenic classification system: 19th century (influenced by Mendel & theories of evolution). Morphological characters: speculative & based on the prejudice of individuals cannot all have been right!!! Classification based on genetics: to reduce or remove the botanists own preference for certain characters.

Binomial Nomenclature Seluruh jenis makhluk hidup diberikan sebuah nama Latin (two words scientific name, one name one organism), dan juga nama umum (many names for one organism). Contohnya Plantago major: - nama Inggris: broad-leaved plantain - 45 nama Inggris lainnya - 11 nama Perancis - 75 nama Belanda - 106 nama Jerman Theosprastus (murid Aristoteles & Plato): orang pertama yang mengklasifikasikan tumbuhan ke dalam kategori pohon, semak, dan herba yang juga berdasarkan perbedaan karakteristik daun (hampir 500 jenis pada abad ke-4 SM). Abad ke-13: baru ditemukan pernggolongan monokotil & dikotil. Carolus Linnaeus (naturalis Swedia) menciptakan binomial nomenklatur.

Carl Linne (Linnaeus) developed the classification scheme we use today, called the binomial system. In it, the first word is the genus (general type), and the second word is the species. Both are in Latin, and the genus is capitalized while the species is not. Thus humans are Homo sapiens. Homo is the genus, which we share with some extinct species such as Homo erectus. sapiens is the species. Binomial nomenklatur: nama genus + nama spesies + nama Author/penemu Contoh: Allium cepa L. - dari genus Allium - jenis cepa (bawang merah) - dinamakan pertama kali oleh Linnaeus

Types of Classification Artificial classification: plants can be grouped according to their uses; fruit, vegetable, ornamental, timber, weed etc. Modern scientific plant (botanical) classification: - showing relatedness of one plant to another - reflect evolutionary history - has value of predictiveness - based on: breeding experiments, form & structure, chemical components, fossil records, etc. Example: the discovery of an AIDS drug in an Amazonian plant Alexa. A chemical called castanospermine was found in an Australian tree in the genus Castanospermum. Kew taxonomists, working from their classification of the family, were able to predict that this compound or very similar ones, would probably be found in Alexa, on the other side of the world. Field work in Brazil followed by laboratory studies proved this to be the case.

Using Morphological Characters One of the oldest and commonly used methods of grouping plants depends on physical characters, or morphology. These characters are mostly visible with the naked eye or a hand lens and many are used, including: size, shape, number and arrangement of parts within a flower arrangement of groups of flowers in an inflorescence the way the anthers (pollen-containing structures) open leaf shape, texture, pattern of veins, arrangement on stem type and shape of fruit plant habit (tree, climbing annual, aquatic perennial etc.) sap colour smell

These characters are also used in plant identification.Biochemistry is also useful as some chemicals are only found in certain groups of plants. In many cases this indicates that members of the group are closely related. The most recent addition to botanists methods of grouping plants is genetic analysis.

Taksonomi Tumbuhan Spermatophyta (tumbuhan berbiji) Sub Divisi Gymnospermae (Gymnos = telanjang, sperma = biji) Karakteristik: 1. Bijinya tidak terlindung dalam bakal buah (ovarium). 2. Biji terekspos langsung atau terletak di antara daun-daun penyusun strobilus (runjung). 3. Habitus berupa pohon, semak, dan beberapa jenis tumbuhan pembelit.

Plantae 1. Bryophyta (lumut) 2. Pteridophyta (paku) 3. Spermatophyta (tumbuhan berbiji). a. Gymnospermae b. Angiospermae

Kelas Gymnospermae1. Pteridospermae (Paku Biji) = fosil 2. Cycadinae (sekitar 100 jenis) Cycadales Cycadaceae Cycas Cycas rumphii (pakis haji) 3. Bennetinae = fosil 4. Cordaitinae = fosil 5. Ginkgoinae Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba (obat untuk daya ingat) 6. Coniferae (100 jenis, tertua berumur 4600-4900 tahun) Pinales Pinaceae Pinus Pinus merkusii 7. Gnetinae (70 jenis) Gnetales Gnetaceae Gnetum Gnetum gnemon (melinjo)

www.wikipedia.com

Manfaat Gymnospermae Sebagai bahan makanan darurat: floem (mengandung gula sehingga terasa manis) dan kambium konifer dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan makanan darurat, baik dimakan mentah, dikeringkan atau ditumbuk menjadi tepung, serta direbus. Sebagai obat: daun jarum pinus diseduh menjadi the karena kaya vitamin C dan dapat mencegah sariawan, Ginkgo biloba sebagai obat penambah daya ingat dan obat awet muda, dan melancarkan peredaran darah, ephedrine sebagai obat asma berasal dari tumbuhan Ephedra (Gnetinae). Kayu pohon digunakan sebagai furnitur, peti kayu, korek api, alat musik, dan lantai kayu. Produksi resin (cairan pelarut terpentin + substansi lilin rosin): sangat penting untuk industri pembuatan mentol untuk rokok, pengkilap lantai, tinta printer, cat kayu, dan parfum. Produksi kertas (pulp) koran.

Karakteristik Angiospermae Ratus ribuan jenis (170.000-250.000 jenis, dalam 10.000 marga/300 suku) Bervariasi dalam ukuran dan habitat Menghasilkan biji dalam bunganya, biji berkembang dari ovarium yang akan berkembang menjadi buah. Angiosperms = covered seed, angeion = vessel (carpel) & sperma = seed. Biji yang matang akan tersebar atau terpencar bersama buahnya.

Perbedaan dengan Gymnospermae Bijinya selalu diselubungi oleh bakal buah Gametofit lebih sederhana Terjadi pembuahan ganda Terdiri atas tumbuhan berkayu & berbatang basah Daunnya bertulang menyirip/menjari pada Dicotyledonae & sejajar/melengkung pada Monocotyledoneae Bunga dengan bermacam-macam bentuk & susunan Hiasan bunga biasanya dibedakan menjadi kelopak & mahkota Kebanyakan berupa bunga banci (hermaphrodit)

Klasifikasi LamaKingdom Subkingdom Divisi Sub divisi Kelas Bangsa (Ordo) Suku (Familia) Marga (Genus) Jenis (Spesies) : Plantae : Tracheobionta : Spermatophyta : Angiospermae : Dicotyledoneae : Asterales : Asteraceae : Helianthus : Helianthus annuus L. Kingdom

Klasifikasi Baru: Plantae : Magnoliophyta : Liliopsida (monocots) : Liliales : Liliaceae : Allium : Allium cepa L. Filum (divisio) Classis/Kelas Ordo/Bangsa Familia/Suku Genus/Marga Spesies/Jenis

Klasifikasi Angiospermae Menurut jumlah daun lembaganya (cotyledon), Angiospermae dibagi menjadi: a. Dicotyledoneae: biji dengan 2 daun lembaga b. Monocotyledoneae: biji dengan 1 daun lembaga Dasar utama klasifikasi: 1. Jumlah cotyledon 2. Anatomi ikatan pembuluh 3. Bentuk & peruratan daun 4. Jumlah bagian-bagian bunga

Perbedaan Monokotil dan DikotilDicotyledoneae Monocotyledoneae

Biji

Mempunyai lembaga dengan 2 daun lembaga. Pada waktu berkecambah belah menjadi 2 bagian.Akar lembaga tumbuh terus membentuk sistem perakaran tunggang (kec. Suku Nymphaceae & Piperaceae). Dari pangkal ke ujung seperti kerucut panjang, bercabangcabang, buku dan ruas tidak jelas.

Mempunyai 1 lembaga dengan 1 daun lembaga. Pada waktu berkecambah biji tidak terbelah.Akar lembaga mati, disusul dengan pembentukan sistem akar serabut. Dari pangkal ke ujung hampir sama besar, tidak bercabangcabang, buku dan ruas tampak jelas.

Lembaga/ kecambah

Batang

Dicotyledoneae

Monocot

Recommended

View more >