John_Baddaley_1908_The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus
Post on 22-Oct-2014
THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUSBY
WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS
LONGMANS, GREEN AND39
PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDONNEWYORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA1908All rights reserved
" The Caucasus may
a mighty fortress,
strong by nature, artificially protected by military works,
and defended by a numerousmen would attemptcommander -wouldmilitary art,to escalade
such a stronghold.
of having recourse
lay his parallels,
advance by sap
so master the
PREFACEWhena non-militarywriter dealsfor.
a word of explanation seems called
Riding through and through the Caucasus unaccompanied save by native tribesmen, living with them, acceptingtheirhospitality,
character, conforming as far as possible to their customs,
noting their superstitions and prejudices, writing
songs and legends, I became interested, likewise, inthat related to thattheirstrife
with Russia in which they orexception, taken part.
had, almost without;
whole country teemed within
memories of the fighting days, and wherever we rode,wherever we restedhills or
the plains, in forest depths, in mountain fastnesses
of desperate deeds, of brave
adventures, the battle
shock of armies, the slaughter ofDull, indeed,
thousands, the deaths of heroes.
must he be
not stirred in a land so varied and beautiful,
with memories so poignant.of
Coming back from eachterest
excursions with into
had seen and heard, I soughtlocally,
complete from books the information gathered,
not in vain.
In the voluminous
literature of the
Caucasus I found a wealth of material
relating to the various wars, yet, strange to say, not, even in Russian,
any complete history of the conquest.Doubr6vin'sgreat
course General Potto's comprehensive work, still in of of publication, ends, so far, with the Turkish campaign1829. 2
the Murid war so
and Colonel Eomanovsky's lectures, delivered Shamil's published in 1860, cover the whole period up to the subject. surrender, but are too brief to do full justice toIn languages other than Russian and notably in English references, I could find little but fragmentary accounts and of or at most the record of some particular phase or episodethe wars, and these for the most part full of prejudice anderror.
seemed that a narrative of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus should have its interest for English readers, even though written by one who disIn these circumstancesit
expert knowledge of military
purely military deductions to be drawn by those betterqualified for the task. I offer thisis
It is in that hope, at all events, thatit
to the public, claiming for
a true statement of the facts, as far as I could discover
them, soberly written, and free from bias.
the authors above-mentioned, in the periods treated
such informationoriginal sources.
as I have been unable to trace to
chief reliance throughout, however, has been on thecollection
of authentic documents published by the
Caucasus Archseographical Commission, 3 the work referredto in
text and notes as " Akti "
while next in imthe
published under the supervision of the Grandna Kavkazye,St.
Istoria voinee ee vladeetchestva rousskikh
1888, 6 vols.23
Kavkazskaya voind, St. Petersburg, 1887-1897, 4 vols., each in four parts. Akti S6branniye KavkdzskoyouArkheografeetcheskoyou Kommissieyou, 13 vols.
Tiflis (various dates).
PREFACEDukeMichael, a collection of articles on the war by
hands and of very unequal merit, but on the whole avaluable source of information. 1
Other works referred to;
in the following pages need not be particularised here
a word of acknowledgmentfor his Bibliographic
to Professor Miansaroff
Transcaucasica, 2 a re-
markable work, wherein any one may see at a glance what stores of literature have already accumulated roundit
that fascinating subject the Caucasus, and, belittle
of any value
contributed by English writers.
one notable exception, however.
Englishmen will alwaysfirst
cherish the fact that their countrymen were thefoot
on the summits of Elbrouz and Kazbek, and such books as Freshfield's, 3 Grove's, 4 and Mummery's 5 will be
read by coming generationswill find
when they have found
the mountain country between the Caspianlarger " playground of
and the Black Sea another and aEurope."Specifically,
Russians and the tribesmen, as distinct from the Persian
and Turkish wars, the only works by English writers ofeven slight interest are those in which Messrs. Longworth
and Bell recountBlack Sea coastbriefly6
dealings with thethis connection I
tribes of the
must explainbeen said of
in the following pages so little has
Kuvlcazsky Sbornik, 20 vols., Tiflis, 1876-1899.St. Petersburg, 1874-1876, 1 vol.
" The Central Caucasus and Bashan," by Douglas W. Freshfield. 1 vol. The same author's " The Exploration of the Caucasus."
1902, 2 vols.
Second Edition. " The Frosty Caucasus," by F. C. Grove. London, 1875, 1 vol. " My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus," by A. F. Mummery.1 vol.
Year among the Circassians," by J. A. Longworth. 2 vols., London, "Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the years 1837-1839," by James Stanislaus Bell. 2 vols., London, 1840."
the warfare in the western Caucasus, which began as early as that in the east and lasted longer, namely, until 1864.
western warfare never had anything like the importance for
Russia that attached to the struggle in Daghestan and Tchetchnia; and when the Russian Government did concentrate its attention mainly in that direction, as in the'thirties,
the mistake cost dear.
Moreover, there was never
cohesion between the western tribes attained undereast,
Shamil in the
nor was there ever amongst them a
was of a desultory nature, and to relate chronologically the events of what was practically an independent war would have been to destroy thereally great leader.
the other hand, toafter
and subsequently, would,
ending at Gouneeb, have been to risk an anti-climax. decided, therefore, in the present work at least, to omitbut the briefest and most necessary references tothe fact that the struggle took place and thatitit,
even Shamil's resistance must not be forgotten. In conclusion, I must put on record
gratitude to two
friends, Colonel Ernest
Pemberton, R.E., and Ceciladvice;
Tyrrel Lewis for her beautiful drawing of Shamil.
All dates, unless otherwise stated, are Old Style,New
days later than the same dates,
Style, for the nineteenth century,
eleven days later for the eighteenth century.
Note 2. and parcelRussianspellingsis
As the whole of the Caucasus forms part Russian Empire, and has done since 1864, and as the official language of the country, it is only reasonable tonames or
follow the Russian nomenclature, except in cases where other
have acquired a prescriptive right and
continue in use
without inconvenience. Georgia and Georgian, for instance, need not be changed to Grouzia and Grouzeen, any more than Russia and Russian
and Rousski.it is
as the Russian alphabet differs greatly from the English,
obvious that words and names transferred from one to the other must
undergo transliteration. Now this is a difficult and much-vexed question, on which no authority holds at present but it is admitted on all sides that for any given book at least, a definite system should be chosen and kept to from first page to last. In the present work this condition has been observed or attempted, the system itself aiming merely at so ren;
dering Russian words that the English readercolourably like the originals;
may pronounce them
and as the main difficulty in doing so arises from the arbitrary incidence in Russian of the stress or emphasis " so strongly noted in nearly every word of the language, this " stress hasibeen marked throughout by an acute accent, except when it falls on the vowel usually rendered " i," which is then written " ee," lest it be taken for " i," as in " child." To this I will only add that, roughly," a " has the sound of the second " a" in
"e" "ou"" zh "
in paper.in through.j."
German "ch."I use before
"t" and "d"
respectively are redundant, but they can do no
"ch" and "j" harm and serve to guard
against the pronounciation of those letters as in French.
and Turkish names, an endeavour has been on the one side, and, on the other, a scientific accuracy for which the general public is In regardto Persian
to avoid the extremes of egregiously bad spelling
not yet prepared.
In Shamil's Psalm (Appendix III.) I have adopted throughout, in Chapter XV. (Muridism) in part only, the spelling kindly furnished me
by Prof. E. G. Browne,
CONTENTSPARTCHAPTERThe Russian approach to the CaucasusI1829
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TOI
First contact Free Cossacks Early relations with Georgia First with the natives Cossack colonisation Formation of the great Cossack Line Firstconflicts
Summary of events leading to the incorporation of Georgia in the Russian Empirecrossing of the mountain chain
Derbend occupied Peter returns to MoscowHis BakuTheir further successes Under Anne the Russians retire to the Terek Catherine the Great Strengthening the Line War with Turkey Todtleben crosses the mountains The Russians retire once more PlatofPs action Flight of thelieutenants take
1771-1796Peace with Turkey Derbend reoccupied and again abandoned The Line extended The Kouban The Nogai Tartars Their subjugation by Souv6roff Count Potiomkin, first Viceroy of the Caucasus Colonisation Shaykh-Mansour Tchetchen victory The first forest disaster Battle of Tatartoub Shaykh-Mansour goes to the western tribes War with Turkey First and second attempts on Anapa Hermann defeats Batal Pasha Anapa taken Shaykh-Mansour a prisoner His death Strengthening of the Line Agha Muhammad's sack of Tiflis War with Persia Z6uboff appointed to the
Persian campaign of 1796 Derbend taken again Russian successes Death of Catherine Paul orders retreat to the Liue of the Terek, but is compelled to interfere again Incorporation of Georgia Alexander I. Tsitsianoff The Tsaritsa Marie Death of Lazareff Tsitsianoff's policy and successes The whole of Georgia reunited after four hundred years Death of Gouliakoff War with Persia
Heroic conduct of Russians Baku Death of TsitsianoffCHAPTER V1806-1816
Goud6vitch again for the fourth and last time Troubles on all sides Niebolseen's victory War with Turkey Anapa retaken Goud6vitch repulsed at Akhalkalaki and Erivan Capture of Poti- Imeritia annexed Unification of Christians Paulucci's victory under the walls of Akhalkalaki Dangerous position of the Russians Combined action of Persia and Turkey It comes to nothing Kotliarevsky takes Akhalkalaki Russian disasters Rebellion in Georgia Its suppression Paulucci recalled General Rteeshtcheff Peace with Turkey Russia's conquests abandoned Kotliarevsky's victory at Aslandouz Lenkoran Peace with Persia Russian conquests
His early career CharacterPolicyHis mission to Persia92
CHAPTER1818Building of Grozny
VeliameenoffHis early career, character, and policy Paskievitch's letter Comparison between Cossack and native Plans for the subjugation of theMemoir and Commentary on106
Building of Vnezapnaya Native revolt in Karakaitagh Russian defeat Russian successes Large increase of the Russian army Organisation of the Caucasian infantry regiment Madatoff Submission of Tabassaran, Karakaitagh, Shekeen, Avaria Yerm61ofPs cruelty The
CHAPTER IX1820-1825Kasi-Koumoukh conquered Shirvan absorbed War between Persia and Turkey Annexation of Karabagh Devastation of Kabarda Ammalat Bek Growth of Muridism Grekoff Tchetchen rising Bei-
destroyed Gherzel Aoul besieged Assassination of Grekoff and Lissanievitch
CHAPTER X1826-1827Yerm61off returns to the Line Death of Alexander I. Persian war Russian disasters Yerm61offs inaction Paskievitch Madatoff's victory at Shamkhor Paskiivitch's victory Yermoloff leaves the Caucasus His career and policy
CHAPTER XI1827-1828Paskievitch blockades Erivan
Enters Nakhitchevan Takes Abbas-Abad Kras6vsky Serdar-Abad taken Erivan Tabriz Urmia Ardebil Treaty of TurkmentchaiAnglo-Persianof
from 1800 to 1827
with Turkey Russian aims Siege and capture of Kars Of Anapa Plague Siege and capture Akhalkalaki March on Akhaltsikh Defeat Turkish relieving forceof of
Siege of Akhaltsikh
capture Poti capitulates Gouria occupied Paskievitch's plans for the second year's campaign Murder of Griboyedoff Turkish...