John_Baddaley_1908_The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus

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THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUSBY

JOHN

F.

BADDELEY

WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS

LONGMANS, GREEN AND39

GO.

PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDONNEWYORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA1908All rights reserved

" The Caucasus may

be

likened to

a mighty fortress,

strong by nature, artificially protected by military works,

and defended by a numerousmen would attemptcommander -wouldmilitary art,to escalade

garrison.

Only thoughtless

such a stronghold.

A iviseto

see

the necessity

of having recourse

and would

lay his parallels,

advance by sap

and

mine,

and

so master the

place"

Veliameenoff

PREFACEWhena non-militarywriter dealsfor.

with

military affairs

a word of explanation seems called

Riding through and through the Caucasus unaccompanied save by native tribesmen, living with them, acceptingtheirhospitality,

studying

their

way

of

life

andtheirall

character, conforming as far as possible to their customs,

noting their superstitions and prejudices, writing

down

songs and legends, I became interested, likewise, inthat related to thattheirstrife

with Russia in which they orexception, taken part.

fathersis

had, almost without;

Nor

this surprising

for the

whole country teemed within

memories of the fighting days, and wherever we rode,wherever we restedhills or

into

walled

cities,

villages,

on the

the plains, in forest depths, in mountain fastnesses

there

were

tales

tell

of desperate deeds, of brave

adventures, the battle

shock of armies, the slaughter ofDull, indeed,

thousands, the deaths of heroes.

must he be

whose bloodfilled

is

not stirred in a land so varied and beautiful,

with memories so poignant.of

Coming back from eachterest

many

excursions with into

heightened by

all I

had seen and heard, I soughtlocally,

complete from books the information gathered,

from

word

of mouth.

And

not in vain.

In the voluminous

literature of the

Caucasus I found a wealth of material

relating to the various wars, yet, strange to say, not, even in Russian,

any complete history of the conquest.Doubr6vin'sgreat

Thusoff

Lieut-General

attempt breaks

in

vi1827"1

PREFACE5

course General Potto's comprehensive work, still in of of publication, ends, so far, with the Turkish campaign1829. 2

By

neither, therefore,

is

the Murid war so

much

as

touched.

and Colonel Eomanovsky's lectures, delivered Shamil's published in 1860, cover the whole period up to the subject. surrender, but are too brief to do full justice toIn languages other than Russian and notably in English references, I could find little but fragmentary accounts and of or at most the record of some particular phase or episodethe wars, and these for the most part full of prejudice anderror.

seemed that a narrative of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus should have its interest for English readers, even though written by one who disIn these circumstancesit

claims

all

expert knowledge of military

affairs,

and leaves

purely military deductions to be drawn by those betterqualified for the task. I offer thisis

It is in that hope, at all events, thatit

book

to the public, claiming for

only that

it

a true statement of the facts, as far as I could discover

them, soberly written, and free from bias.

To

the authors above-mentioned, in the periods treated

by them,

my acknowledgments

are

due

for

such informationoriginal sources.

as I have been unable to trace to

more

Myvast

chief reliance throughout, however, has been on thecollection

of authentic documents published by the

Caucasus Archseographical Commission, 3 the work referredto in

my

text and notes as " Akti "

;

while next in imthe

portanceSbornik,1

come

the

twenty

volumes of

Kavhazshy

published under the supervision of the Grandna Kavkazye,St.

Istoria voinee ee vladeetchestva rousskikh

Petersburg, 1871-

1888, 6 vols.23

Kavkazskaya voind, St. Petersburg, 1887-1897, 4 vols., each in four parts. Akti S6branniye KavkdzskoyouArkheografeetcheskoyou Kommissieyou, 13 vols.

Tiflis (various dates).

PREFACEDukeMichael, a collection of articles on the war by

vii

many

hands and of very unequal merit, but on the whole avaluable source of information. 1

Other works referred to;

in the following pages need not be particularised here

but

a word of acknowledgmentfor his Bibliographic

is

dueet

to Professor Miansaroff

Caucasica

Transcaucasica, 2 a re-

rich

markable work, wherein any one may see at a glance what stores of literature have already accumulated roundit

that fascinating subject the Caucasus, and, belittle

added,

how

of any value

is

contributed by English writers.

There

is

one notable exception, however.

Englishmen will alwaysfirst

cherish the fact that their countrymen were thefoot

to set

on the summits of Elbrouz and Kazbek, and such books as Freshfield's, 3 Grove's, 4 and Mummery's 5 will be

read by coming generationswill find

when they have found

as they

in

the mountain country between the Caspianlarger " playground of

and the Black Sea another and aEurope."Specifically,

in

regard

to

the warfare

between

the

Russians and the tribesmen, as distinct from the Persian

and Turkish wars, the only works by English writers ofeven slight interest are those in which Messrs. Longworth

and Bell recountBlack Sea coastbriefly6

their

dealings with thethis connection I

tribes of the

and in

must explainbeen said of

why

in the following pages so little has

1

Kuvlcazsky Sbornik, 20 vols., Tiflis, 1876-1899.St. Petersburg, 1874-1876, 1 vol.

2 3

1869,46

" The Central Caucasus and Bashan," by Douglas W. Freshfield. 1 vol. The same author's " The Exploration of the Caucasus."

London, London,

1902, 2 vols.

Second Edition. " The Frosty Caucasus," by F. C. Grove. London, 1875, 1 vol. " My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus," by A. F. Mummery.1 vol.

London,

1895,6

Year among the Circassians," by J. A. Longworth. 2 vols., London, "Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the years 1837-1839," by James Stanislaus Bell. 2 vols., London, 1840."

A

1840.

viii

PREFACE

the warfare in the western Caucasus, which began as early as that in the east and lasted longer, namely, until 1864.

The

truth

is

(as Colonel

Romanovsky puts

l

it

)

that this

western warfare never had anything like the importance for

Russia that attached to the struggle in Daghestan and Tchetchnia; and when the Russian Government did concentrate its attention mainly in that direction, as in the'thirties,

the mistake cost dear.

Moreover, there was never

the

cohesion between the western tribes attained undereast,

Shamil in the

nor was there ever amongst them a

was of a desultory nature, and to relate chronologically the events of what was practically an independent war would have been to destroy thereally great leader.

The

fighting

unity of

my

narrative.

On

the other hand, toafter

tell

the story

separately,

and subsequently, would,

the

dramaticIall

ending at Gouneeb, have been to risk an anti-climax. decided, therefore, in the present work at least, to omitbut the briefest and most necessary references tothe fact that the struggle took place and thatitit,

yet

outlasted

even Shamil's resistance must not be forgotten. In conclusion, I must put on record

my

gratitude to two

kind

friends, Colonel Ernest

Pemberton, R.E., and Ceciladvice;

Floersheim,

Esq.,

for

much good

and

to

Mrs.

Tyrrel Lewis for her beautiful drawing of Shamil.

Note

1.

All dates, unless otherwise stated, are Old Style,New

i.e.

twelve

days later than the same dates,

Style, for the nineteenth century,

eleven days later for the eighteenth century.

Note 2. and parcelRussianspellingsis

Transliteration.of the

As the whole of the Caucasus forms part Russian Empire, and has done since 1864, and as the official language of the country, it is only reasonable tonames or

follow the Russian nomenclature, except in cases where other

have acquired a prescriptive right and

may

continue in use

1

Op.

cit.,

p, 226.

PREFACEto Rosseeya

ix

without inconvenience. Georgia and Georgian, for instance, need not be changed to Grouzia and Grouzeen, any more than Russia and Russian

and Rousski.it is

But

as the Russian alphabet differs greatly from the English,

obvious that words and names transferred from one to the other must

undergo transliteration. Now this is a difficult and much-vexed question, on which no authority holds at present but it is admitted on all sides that for any given book at least, a definite system should be chosen and kept to from first page to last. In the present work this condition has been observed or attempted, the system itself aiming merely at so ren;

dering Russian words that the English readercolourably like the originals;

may pronounce them

and as the main difficulty in doing so arises from the arbitrary incidence in Russian of the stress or emphasis " so strongly noted in nearly every word of the language, this " stress hasibeen marked throughout by an acute accent, except when it falls on the vowel usually rendered " i," which is then written " ee," lest it be taken for " i," as in " child." To this I will only add that, roughly," a " has the sound of the second " a" in

papa.

"e" "ou"" zh "

,, ,,

,,

"a""

in paper.in through.j."

ou"

French "

"kh"I

German "ch."I use before

am aware

that the

"t" and "d"

respectively are redundant, but they can do no

"ch" and "j" harm and serve to guard

against the pronounciation of those letters as in French.

and Turkish names, an endeavour has been on the one side, and, on the other, a scientific accuracy for which the general public is In regardto Persian

made

to avoid the extremes of egregiously bad spelling

not yet prepared.

In Shamil's Psalm (Appendix III.) I have adopted throughout, in Chapter XV. (Muridism) in part only, the spelling kindly furnished me

by Prof. E. G. Browne,

of

Cambridge University.

CONTENTSPARTCHAPTERThe Russian approach to the CaucasusI1829

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TOI

First contact Free Cossacks Early relations with Georgia First with the natives Cossack colonisation Formation of the great Cossack Line Firstconflicts

PAOB

Summary of events leading to the incorporation of Georgia in the Russian Empirecrossing of the mountain chain

....

1

CHAPTER1722-1771Peter's campaign

II

Derbend occupied Peter returns to MoscowHis BakuTheir further successes Under Anne the Russians retire to the Terek Catherine the Great Strengthening the Line War with Turkey Todtleben crosses the mountains The Russians retire once more PlatofPs action Flight of thelieutenants take

Kalmuck Tartars

23

CHAPTER

III

1771-1796Peace with Turkey Derbend reoccupied and again abandoned The Line extended The Kouban The Nogai Tartars Their subjugation by Souv6roff Count Potiomkin, first Viceroy of the Caucasus Colonisation Shaykh-Mansour Tchetchen victory The first forest disaster Battle of Tatartoub Shaykh-Mansour goes to the western tribes War with Turkey First and second attempts on Anapa Hermann defeats Batal Pasha Anapa taken Shaykh-Mansour a prisoner His death Strengthening of the Line Agha Muhammad's sack of Tiflis War with Persia Z6uboff appointed to the

command-in-chief

37

xii

CONTENTSCHAPTER IV1796-1806PAGE

Persian campaign of 1796 Derbend taken again Russian successes Death of Catherine Paul orders retreat to the Liue of the Terek, but is compelled to interfere again Incorporation of Georgia Alexander I. Tsitsianoff The Tsaritsa Marie Death of Lazareff Tsitsianoff's policy and successes The whole of Georgia reunited after four hundred years Death of Gouliakoff War with Persia

Heroic conduct of Russians Baku Death of TsitsianoffCHAPTER V1806-1816

...

57

Derbend captured

Goud6vitch again for the fourth and last time Troubles on all sides Niebolseen's victory War with Turkey Anapa retaken Goud6vitch repulsed at Akhalkalaki and Erivan Capture of Poti- Imeritia annexed Unification of Christians Paulucci's victory under the walls of Akhalkalaki Dangerous position of the Russians Combined action of Persia and Turkey It comes to nothing Kotliarevsky takes Akhalkalaki Russian disasters Rebellion in Georgia Its suppression Paulucci recalled General Rteeshtcheff Peace with Turkey Russia's conquests abandoned Kotliarevsky's victory at Aslandouz Lenkoran Peace with Persia Russian conquests

.

73

CHAPTER VI1816-1817Yermoloff

His early career CharacterPolicyHis mission to Persia92

The Line

CHAPTER1818Building of Grozny

VII

His

VeliameenoffHis early career, character, and policy Paskievitch's letter Comparison between Cossack and native Plans for the subjugation of theMemoir and Commentary on106

Caucasus

CONTENTSCHAPTER1819

xiii

VIII

PAQK

Building of Vnezapnaya Native revolt in Karakaitagh Russian defeat Russian successes Large increase of the Russian army Organisation of the Caucasian infantry regiment Madatoff Submission of Tabassaran, Karakaitagh, Shekeen, Avaria Yerm61ofPs cruelty The

Akousheens beaten

123

CHAPTER IX1820-1825Kasi-Koumoukh conquered Shirvan absorbed War between Persia and Turkey Annexation of Karabagh Devastation of Kabarda Ammalat Bek Growth of Muridism Grekoff Tchetchen rising Bei-

boulat Ameer-Hadji-Yourt

destroyed Gherzel Aoul besieged Assassination of Grekoff and Lissanievitch

.....

135

CHAPTER X1826-1827Yerm61off returns to the Line Death of Alexander I. Persian war Russian disasters Yerm61offs inaction Paskievitch Madatoff's victory at Shamkhor Paskiivitch's victory Yermoloff leaves the Caucasus His career and policy

152

CHAPTER XI1827-1828Paskievitch blockades Erivan

Battle

Enters Nakhitchevan Takes Abbas-Abad Kras6vsky Serdar-Abad taken Erivan Tabriz Urmia Ardebil Treaty of TurkmentchaiAnglo-Persianof

Ashtarak

relations

from 1800 to 1827

164

CHAPTER1828

XII

War

with Turkey Russian aims Siege and capture of Kars Of Anapa Plague Siege and capture Akhalkalaki March on Akhaltsikh Defeat Turkish relieving forceof of

182

xiv

CONTENTSCHAPTER1828

XIII

Siege of Akhaltsikh

capture Poti capitulates Gouria occupied Paskievitch's plans for the second year's campaign Murder of Griboyedoff Turkish...

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