john_baddaley_1908_the russian conquest of the caucasus

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THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUSBY

JOHN

F.

BADDELEY

WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS

LONGMANS, GREEN AND39

GO.

PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDONNEWYORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA1908All rights reserved

" The Caucasus may

be

likened to

a mighty fortress,

strong by nature, artificially protected by military works,

and defended by a numerousmen would attemptcommander -wouldmilitary art,to escalade

garrison.

Only thoughtless

such a stronghold.

A iviseto

see

the necessity

of having recourse

and would

lay his parallels,

advance by sap

and

mine,

and

so master the

place"

Veliameenoff

PREFACEWhena non-militarywriter dealsfor.

with

military affairs

a word of explanation seems called

Riding through and through the Caucasus unaccompanied save by native tribesmen, living with them, acceptingtheirhospitality,

studying

their

way

of

life

andtheirall

character, conforming as far as possible to their customs,

noting their superstitions and prejudices, writing

down

songs and legends, I became interested, likewise, inthat related to thattheirstrife

with Russia in which they orexception, taken part.

fathersis

had, almost without;

Nor

this surprising

for the

whole country teemed within

memories of the fighting days, and wherever we rode,wherever we restedhills or

into

walled

cities,

villages,

on the

the plains, in forest depths, in mountain fastnesses

there

were

tales

tell

of desperate deeds, of brave

adventures, the battle

shock of armies, the slaughter ofDull, indeed,

thousands, the deaths of heroes.

must he be

whose bloodfilled

is

not stirred in a land so varied and beautiful,

with memories so poignant.of

Coming back from eachterest

many

excursions with into

heightened by

all I

had seen and heard, I soughtlocally,

complete from books the information gathered,

from

word

of mouth.

And

not in vain.

In the voluminous

literature of the

Caucasus I found a wealth of material

relating to the various wars, yet, strange to say, not, even in Russian,

any complete history of the conquest.Doubr6vin'sgreat

Thusoff

Lieut-General

attempt breaks

in

vi1827"1

PREFACE5

course General Potto's comprehensive work, still in of of publication, ends, so far, with the Turkish campaign1829. 2

By

neither, therefore,

is

the Murid war so

much

as

touched.

and Colonel Eomanovsky's lectures, delivered Shamil's published in 1860, cover the whole period up to the subject. surrender, but are too brief to do full justice toIn languages other than Russian and notably in English references, I could find little but fragmentary accounts and of or at most the record of some particular phase or episodethe wars, and these for the most part full of prejudice anderror.

seemed that a narrative of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus should have its interest for English readers, even though written by one who disIn these circumstancesit

claims

all

expert knowledge of military

affairs,

and leaves

purely military deductions to be drawn by those betterqualified for the task. I offer thisis

It is in that hope, at all events, thatit

book

to the public, claiming for

only that

it

a true statement of the facts, as far as I could discover

them, soberly written, and free from bias.

To

the authors above-mentioned, in the periods treated

by them,

my acknowledgments

are

due

for

such informationoriginal sources.

as I have been unable to trace to

more

Myvast

chief reliance throughout, however, has been on thecollection

of authentic documents published by the

Caucasus Archseographical Commission, 3 the work referredto in

my

text and notes as " Akti "

;

while next in imthe

portanceSbornik,1

come

the

twenty

volumes of

Kavhazshy

published under the supervision of the Grandna Kavkazye,St.

Istoria voinee ee vladeetchestva rousskikh

Petersburg, 1871-

1888, 6 vols.23

Kavkazskaya voind, St. Petersburg, 1887-1897, 4 vols., each in four parts. Akti S6branniye KavkdzskoyouArkheografeetcheskoyou Kommissieyou, 13 vols.

Tiflis (various dates).

PREFACEDukeMichael, a collection of articles on the war by

vii

many

hands and of very unequal merit, but on the whole avaluable source of information. 1

Other works referred to;

in the following pages need not be particularised here

but

a word of acknowledgmentfor his Bibliographic

is

dueet

to Professor Miansaroff

Caucasica

Transcaucasica, 2 a re-

rich

markable work, wherein any one may see at a glance what stores of literature have already accumulated roundit

that fascinating subject the Caucasus, and, belittle

added,

how

of any value

is

contributed by English writers.

There

is

one notable exception, however.

Englishmen will alwaysfirst

cherish the fact that their countrymen were thefoot

to set

on the summits of Elbrouz and Kazbek, and such books as Freshfield's, 3 Grove's, 4 and Mummery's 5 will be

read by coming generationswill find

when they have found

as they

in

the mountain country between the Caspianlarger " playground of

and the Black Sea another and aEurope."Specifically,

in

regard

to

the warfare

between

the

Russians and the tribesmen, as distinct from the Persian

and Turkish wars, the only works by English writers ofeven slight interest are those in which Messrs. Longworth

and Bell recountBlack Sea coastbriefly6

their

dealings with thethis connection I

tribes of the

and in

must explainbeen said of

why

in the following pages so little has

1

Kuvlcazsky Sbornik, 20 vols., Tiflis, 1876-1899.St. Petersburg, 1874-1876, 1 vol.

2 3

1869,46

" The Central Caucasus and Bashan," by Douglas W. Freshfield. 1 vol. The same author's " The Exploration of the Caucasus."

London, London,

1902, 2 vols.

Second Edition. " The Frosty Caucasus," by F. C. Grove. London, 1875, 1 vol. " My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus," by A. F. Mummery.1 vol.

London,

1895,6

Year among the Circassians," by J. A. Longworth. 2 vols., London, "Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the years 1837-1839," by James Stanislaus Bell. 2 vols., London, 1840."

A

1840.

viii

PREFACE

the warfare in the western Caucasus, which began as early as that in the east and lasted longer, namely, until 1864.

The

truth

is

(as Colonel

Romanovsky puts

l

it

)

that this

western warfare never had anything like the importance for

Russia that attached to the struggle in Daghestan and Tchetchnia; and when the Russian Government did concentrate its attention mainly in that direction, as in the'thirties,

the mistake cost dear.

Moreover, there was never

the

cohesion between the western tribes attained undereast,

Shamil in the

nor was there ever amongst them a

was of a desultory nature, and to relate chronologically the events of what was practically an independent war would have been to destroy thereally great leader.

The

fighting

unity of

my

narrative.

On

the other hand, toafter

tell

the story

separately,

and subsequently, would,

the

dramaticIall

ending at Gouneeb, have been to risk an anti-climax. decided, therefore, in the present work at least, to omitbut the briefest and most necessary references tothe fact that the struggle took place and thatitit,

yet

outlasted

even Shamil's resistance must not be forgotten. In conclusion, I must put on record

my

gratitude to two

kind

friends, Colonel Ernest

Pemberton, R.E., and Ceciladvice;

Floersheim,

Esq.,

for

much good

and

to

Mrs.

Tyrrel Lewis for her beautiful drawing of Shamil.

Note

1.

All dates, unless otherwise stated, are Old Style,New

i.e.

twelve

days later than the same dates,

Style, for the nineteenth century,

eleven days later for the eighteenth century.

Note 2. and parcelRussianspellingsis

Transliteration.of the

As the whole of the Caucasus forms part Russian Empire, and has done since 1864, and as the official language of the country, it is only reasonable tonames or

follow the Russian nomenclature, except in cases where other

have acquired a prescriptive right and

may

continue in use

1

Op.

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