john_baddaley_1908_the russian conquest of the caucasus
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THE RUSSIAN CONQUEST OF THE CAUCASUSBY
WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS
LONGMANS, GREEN AND39
PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDONNEWYORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA1908All rights reserved
" The Caucasus may
a mighty fortress,
strong by nature, artificially protected by military works,
and defended by a numerousmen would attemptcommander -wouldmilitary art,to escalade
such a stronghold.
of having recourse
lay his parallels,
advance by sap
so master the
PREFACEWhena non-militarywriter dealsfor.
a word of explanation seems called
Riding through and through the Caucasus unaccompanied save by native tribesmen, living with them, acceptingtheirhospitality,
character, conforming as far as possible to their customs,
noting their superstitions and prejudices, writing
songs and legends, I became interested, likewise, inthat related to thattheirstrife
with Russia in which they orexception, taken part.
had, almost without;
whole country teemed within
memories of the fighting days, and wherever we rode,wherever we restedhills or
the plains, in forest depths, in mountain fastnesses
of desperate deeds, of brave
adventures, the battle
shock of armies, the slaughter ofDull, indeed,
thousands, the deaths of heroes.
must he be
not stirred in a land so varied and beautiful,
with memories so poignant.of
Coming back from eachterest
excursions with into
had seen and heard, I soughtlocally,
complete from books the information gathered,
not in vain.
In the voluminous
literature of the
Caucasus I found a wealth of material
relating to the various wars, yet, strange to say, not, even in Russian,
any complete history of the conquest.Doubr6vin'sgreat
course General Potto's comprehensive work, still in of of publication, ends, so far, with the Turkish campaign1829. 2
the Murid war so
and Colonel Eomanovsky's lectures, delivered Shamil's published in 1860, cover the whole period up to the subject. surrender, but are too brief to do full justice toIn languages other than Russian and notably in English references, I could find little but fragmentary accounts and of or at most the record of some particular phase or episodethe wars, and these for the most part full of prejudice anderror.
seemed that a narrative of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus should have its interest for English readers, even though written by one who disIn these circumstancesit
expert knowledge of military
purely military deductions to be drawn by those betterqualified for the task. I offer thisis
It is in that hope, at all events, thatit
to the public, claiming for
a true statement of the facts, as far as I could discover
them, soberly written, and free from bias.
the authors above-mentioned, in the periods treated
such informationoriginal sources.
as I have been unable to trace to
chief reliance throughout, however, has been on thecollection
of authentic documents published by the
Caucasus Archseographical Commission, 3 the work referredto in
text and notes as " Akti "
while next in imthe
published under the supervision of the Grandna Kavkazye,St.
Istoria voinee ee vladeetchestva rousskikh
1888, 6 vols.23
Kavkazskaya voind, St. Petersburg, 1887-1897, 4 vols., each in four parts. Akti S6branniye KavkdzskoyouArkheografeetcheskoyou Kommissieyou, 13 vols.
Tiflis (various dates).
PREFACEDukeMichael, a collection of articles on the war by
hands and of very unequal merit, but on the whole avaluable source of information. 1
Other works referred to;
in the following pages need not be particularised here
a word of acknowledgmentfor his Bibliographic
to Professor Miansaroff
Transcaucasica, 2 a re-
markable work, wherein any one may see at a glance what stores of literature have already accumulated roundit
that fascinating subject the Caucasus, and, belittle
of any value
contributed by English writers.
one notable exception, however.
Englishmen will alwaysfirst
cherish the fact that their countrymen were thefoot
on the summits of Elbrouz and Kazbek, and such books as Freshfield's, 3 Grove's, 4 and Mummery's 5 will be
read by coming generationswill find
when they have found
the mountain country between the Caspianlarger " playground of
and the Black Sea another and aEurope."Specifically,
Russians and the tribesmen, as distinct from the Persian
and Turkish wars, the only works by English writers ofeven slight interest are those in which Messrs. Longworth
and Bell recountBlack Sea coastbriefly6
dealings with thethis connection I
tribes of the
must explainbeen said of
in the following pages so little has
Kuvlcazsky Sbornik, 20 vols., Tiflis, 1876-1899.St. Petersburg, 1874-1876, 1 vol.
" The Central Caucasus and Bashan," by Douglas W. Freshfield. 1 vol. The same author's " The Exploration of the Caucasus."
1902, 2 vols.
Second Edition. " The Frosty Caucasus," by F. C. Grove. London, 1875, 1 vol. " My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus," by A. F. Mummery.1 vol.
Year among the Circassians," by J. A. Longworth. 2 vols., London, "Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the years 1837-1839," by James Stanislaus Bell. 2 vols., London, 1840."
the warfare in the western Caucasus, which began as early as that in the east and lasted longer, namely, until 1864.
western warfare never had anything like the importance for
Russia that attached to the struggle in Daghestan and Tchetchnia; and when the Russian Government did concentrate its attention mainly in that direction, as in the'thirties,
the mistake cost dear.
Moreover, there was never
cohesion between the western tribes attained undereast,
Shamil in the
nor was there ever amongst them a
was of a desultory nature, and to relate chronologically the events of what was practically an independent war would have been to destroy thereally great leader.
the other hand, toafter
and subsequently, would,
ending at Gouneeb, have been to risk an anti-climax. decided, therefore, in the present work at least, to omitbut the briefest and most necessary references tothe fact that the struggle took place and thatitit,
even Shamil's resistance must not be forgotten. In conclusion, I must put on record
gratitude to two
friends, Colonel Ernest
Pemberton, R.E., and Ceciladvice;
Tyrrel Lewis for her beautiful drawing of Shamil.
All dates, unless otherwise stated, are Old Style,New
days later than the same dates,
Style, for the nineteenth century,
eleven days later for the eighteenth century.
Note 2. and parcelRussianspellingsis
As the whole of the Caucasus forms part Russian Empire, and has done since 1864, and as the official language of the country, it is only reasonable tonames or
follow the Russian nomenclature, except in cases where other
have acquired a prescriptive right and
continue in use