North Caucasus and Central Asia. NORTH CAUCASUS l.

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<ul><li><p>North Caucasus and Central Asia</p></li><li><p>NORTH</p></li><li><p>AGENDA1. Introduction</p><p>2.Chechen conflict, timeline</p><p>3.Russian position in this conflict</p><p>4.Reasons for the desaster</p><p>5.Additionally other country profiles</p><p>6.External actors</p><p>7.Difficulties and possible solutions</p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>County Profile</p><p>Chechnya</p><p>Dagestan</p><p>Ingushetia</p><p>status</p><p>Republic within RF</p><p>Republic within RF</p><p>Republik within RF</p><p>capital</p><p>Grozny</p><p>Makhachkala</p><p>Magas</p><p>population</p><p> 1 mio</p><p>2,2 mio</p><p>300 000</p><p>major religions</p><p>Islam, Christianity</p><p>Islam</p><p>Islam</p><p>major languages</p><p>Chechen, Russian</p><p>Different languages</p><p>Ingush, Russian</p><p>resources</p><p>oil</p><p>oil, gas, agriculture</p><p>Head of state</p><p>Alu Alkhanov</p><p>Mukhu Aliyev</p><p>Murat Zyazikov</p></li><li><p>Timeline: ChechnyaChronics: until 1858: decades of resistance against russian conquerors 1934: Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Solialist Republic 1944: Stalins retribution for chechen colloboration with Nazi-regime: deportation 1957:Khrushev restores the Republic of the year 1934</p></li><li><p>Chechen war : chronics1991: Declaration of independency (Dudajew), only Afghanistan recognizes the state Ishkeria1994 -1996: first war result: autonomy, but no independence1997-1999: Maskhadow (chechen leader )could not bring the country under control1999: chechen-dagestanian border: attempt to create an islamic state, terror attacs in Russia1999 2000: second war,,661054_1,00.jpg</p></li><li><p>chronics officials chechen leadersSince 2000: Moskow loyal Kadyrow years, Putin declares direct rule from Moskow2003: referendum vote of the new constitution (C. as a part of RF); Kadyrov elected president2004: Kadyrov killed,Alkhanov is president2005: new parliament2006: son of Kadyrow becomes prime minister2005 Maskhadov killed2006: his successor Saydullayev killedJuly 2006: warlord Basayev killedDokka Umarov has to unite the different gangs (b-list)</p></li><li><p>Shamil Basayev Profile-born 1965-briefly studied in Moskow land management-became later computer salesmancareer as a chechen fighter:-1.1995: hospital siege; Budyonovsk,southern Russia, 100 people killed-10.2002: Moskow theatre siege, 129 hostages die-8.2004:suicide bombers kill 10 people outside metro in Moskow-9.2004: gunmen seize school in Beslan, 331 died-10.2005:attac in Nalchik,Russia; scores killed consequenses of his death: power has to be structured in a new way, this might provoke new conflicts within clans which desire more control or power in Chechnya by claiming important positions for their people all information and pictures: 10.7.06 </p></li><li><p>Chechnya</p><p>State/nation building</p><p>security</p><p>welfare</p><p>Rule of law</p><p>Relations to RF</p><p>different taips</p><p>Chechen-dagestanian border</p><p>Ecological disaster</p><p>Conflict in the government</p><p>Finacial dependence on Russia</p><p>originally no hierarchy </p><p>militarisation </p><p>arms deal,</p><p>drug traffic </p><p>Many people want to emigrate</p><p>Delinquency is solved by traditional judiciary</p><p>Intervention in neighbour regions</p><p>no infrastructure</p><p>corruption</p><p>kidnapping</p><p>no health or education system</p><p>abuse of human rights</p><p>Russian anti-terror-operations</p><p>nepotism</p><p>violence-apparatof Kadyrow-clan</p><p>varios warlords</p><p>economic crisis</p><p>problematical legimacy</p><p>high crime rate</p></li><li><p>INGUSHETIA</p><p>State/ nation building</p><p>security</p><p>welfare</p><p>Rule of law</p><p>Relations to RF</p><p>different clans</p><p>territory not clearly defined</p><p>barely industrialized,</p><p>agriculture</p><p>no structure in the administration</p><p>in 1991 wish to belong to Russia</p><p>much terroristic violence</p><p>2/3 of the people are unemployed,</p><p>extreme poverty</p><p>no governmental organs</p><p>After 1991 disappointment</p><p>Because of Russian promises to help I. in North- Ossetia question</p><p>Worse situation than in Chechnya</p><p>corruption</p><p>nomenclatura,</p><p>legimaticy crisis</p></li><li><p>Dagestan</p><p>state/nationbuilding</p><p>security</p><p>welfare</p><p>Rule of law</p><p>Relations to RF</p><p>14 biggest ethnic groups</p><p>Frequency of terroristic actions increases</p><p>poverty</p><p>first chairman held his office by now</p><p>loyal,</p><p>renounced their souvereignty rights in 1991</p><p>collegial rotation system</p><p>fundamentalistic</p><p>gruops,</p><p>islamistic opposition</p><p>High unemployment rate</p><p>head of state is appointed by russ. president</p><p>balance between </p><p>different interests</p><p>Civil war without clear fronts</p><p>(not yet escalated)</p><p>Ecology and economy nonfunctional</p><p>no real legimacy</p><p>Very complex ethnic composition</p></li><li><p>characteristics Complex ethnitical construction structural problems clan-society many beneficiaries of the conflict distabilisation from russia radicalisation of the fronts international war on terror hinders IO to express open their opinion on russian war in chechnya</p></li><li><p>FAU Erlangen-NrnbergInstitute for Political SciencePS: Failed and Fragile StatesPresentation by Emma Hauer 28.062006 State FailureinCentral Asia</p><p>Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan</p></li><li><p> Where is Central Asia?</p></li><li><p>Structural Problems in the Central Asian states?General economical decline after independence:discontinuation of financial subsidies from Moscowdisruptive privatisation; exclusion from the rouble zonemassive out-migration of Russians and other Russian-speakers vacuum in key positions in administration and economyindustrial development backward; primarily supplier of raw materials</p><p>2. Difficult process of state- and nation-building:embryonic states; never existed as modern national-states beforeold Soviet nomenclature still powerful political transformation?multiethnic states (forced and voluntary immigration by dozens of other nationalities)disputes over borders and land (administrative borders do not follow ethnic and linguistic lines) weak sense of national identity</p></li><li><p>Developments after independence</p><p>1. Socio-economic situation:increasing unemployment and poverty of the major part of the populationworsening living standards: decline of infrastructure, health and educational systemsprecarious situation especially for youth: higher rates of illiteracy, drug use, unemployment etc.borderland Afghanistan became a factor of instability: rapidly expanding gun and drug trade; refugees2. Political situation:development to non-democratic, repressive and authoritarian political systemspolice forces much more powerful than militaries (but: corrupt, criminal)declining public support for the governmentsworsening of ethnic and state relationsin spite of state repression and persecution of Islamic groups, spread of underground Islamist activism</p></li><li><p>Various Types of StateHow fulfil the Central Asian States the core functions of Security, Welfare, Legitimacy and Law state?</p></li><li><p>1) Kazakhstan</p></li><li><p>2) Uzbekistan</p></li><li><p>3) Kyrgyzstan</p></li><li><p>4) Turkmenistan</p></li><li><p>5) Tajikistan</p></li><li><p>Characteristics &amp; Future Prospects for the Regionthreat of Islamic fundamentalism not imminent in Central Asian statesbut: political repression of religious groups could lead to a radicalisation development to non-democratic and authoritarian political systems could become a major risk factor for instabilitycontinuation of the war in Afghanistan will lead to a worsening of the socio-economic and political situation in Central Asian states, particularly in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan</p></li><li><p>OverviewBurka BandCountry ProfileState- and nationbuildingDemocratizationState-/violenceSocio-/oeconomic situationSummaryCharacteristics</p></li><li><p>AfghanistanThe Burka Band</p></li><li><p> mother wears blue jeans now, and i am so surprised; the things are changing faster, i dont know if its right......</p></li><li><p>bersicht Afghanistan</p></li><li><p>Afghanistan Country ProfilePopulation: 31.056.997 (July 2006 est.)Capital: KabulReligion: 99% Muslim Literacy: 36% Life expectancy: 43.34 yearsHead of State/President: Hamid KARZAI</p></li><li><p>Analysisstate- and nationbuilding19th century: Colonialism1923: Monarchy1978-1989:Afghanistan under sovjet rule1989-2001:Afghanistan und the rule of Taliban2001-2006:Islamic Republic of Afghanistan</p></li><li><p>DemocratizationBonn agreementGovernment consists of:Warlords/Mujaheddin west oriented politicians</p></li><li><p>Democratization? Attention: Is democratization possible? Obstacles: lack of human rights and security destroyed infrastructure no economy lack of any political system Different interests by different forces! </p></li><li><p>Democratization?Warlords/ Mujaheddin: Territory soverignity/independent fromthe governmentDrug/gun trafficking/ partly Taliban</p><p>Politicians: realization of the interests of U.S./ U.N. Low acceptance by the citizens</p></li><li><p>State-/ Violence</p></li><li><p>Socio/-oeconomic situationAgricultur/ mostly Opium cultivaton: 87% of the world supplyWeak economy: small-scale production of textiles, soap...Low average level of education</p></li><li><p>Afghanistan is a failed stateWas the ad hoc intervention of the U.S. a success? Are their similarities to Iraq?Different Interests:U.S./NATO: military base in middle asiaWarlords: dont want to share their powerBorderlands: profits from gun/drug trafficking strengthening the power of islamic fundamentalist</p><p>Characteristics</p><p>The States Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were former Soviet republics. They were more than 70 years politically and economically dependent on Russia. The major part of the native population is muslim and speaking a Turq language; except the Tajiks who speak Farsi, a Persian language.First of all we would like to give you a short break and present the first afghanistan girl group. The burka band.The music This is especially on the situation of women but i think we can see it more generally on the situation in afghanistan, because their was no continuity in any political process. </p></li></ul>


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