Introduction to Geographic Information ?· M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems 2 An information system is an organized set of procedures human resources material resources

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<ul><li><p>Introduction to GeographicInformation Systems</p><p>Environment and Land Planning Applications</p><p>Prof. Maria Antonia BrovelliPolitecnico di Milano</p><p>Polo Regionale di Como</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>2</p><p>An information system is an organized set of</p><p>procedureshuman resourcesmaterial resources</p><p>used to</p><p>gatherstoreprocesscommunicate</p><p>information needed by an organization to manage itsoperational and government activities.</p><p>Definition of Information System</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>3</p><p>We define GIS (Geographic Information System) as a structureconstituted by a powerful set of instruments and technologiescommitted to acquire, store, manage, transform, analyze and visualizegeoreferenced spatial data.</p><p>Georeferenced information: every document or event referred to a particular portion of Earths surface is an example of georeferencedinformation</p><p>Geospatial information: every document or event that is alsorepresented from a cartographic point of view or by maps or aerial/satellite images is an example of geospatial information</p><p>Often the two terms (georeferenced and geospatial) are used assynonyms.</p><p>Geographic Information System</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>4</p><p>Spatial or geographic data represent REAL WORLD PHENOMENA and they are characterized by:</p><p>their POSITION in space with respect to a reference and coordinate systemNON-SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES (color, temperature, etc)mutual SPATIAL RELATIONS (topological, directional, distance relations)</p><p>The definition of a GIS contextually requires the definition of its objectives and methods</p><p> GIS OBJECTIVES means the set of results pursued at the moment of the definition and creation of the GIS itself</p><p> GIS METHODS means the set of operators, coded in an abstract form, which allows to accomplish such objectives</p><p>Geographic Information System</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>5</p><p>Definitions ...</p><p>a) GIS definitions based on the concept of DatabaseA database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database</p><p>Smith T.R., S. Menon, J.L. Starr, and J.E. Estes, 1987.Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems. International J. of Geographical Information Systems, 1: 13-31.</p><p>any manual or computer based set of procedures used to store andmanipulate geographically referenced dataAronoff S., 1989. Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective. WDL Publ., Ottawa, Canada.</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>6</p><p>Definitions ...b) GIS defined as a structure constituted by a set of </p><p>instruments and technologiesa powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real worldBurrough P., McDonnel A. (1998) Principles of Geographical Information Systems Oxford University Press, Oxford</p><p>A system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth Department of Environment (DoE), 1987. Handling Geographic Information. HMSO, London, 1988</p><p>c) GIS definitions based on organizational aspectsa decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environmentCowen D.J., 1988. GIS versus CAD versus DBMS: what are the differences? Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54: 1551-1554 </p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>7</p><p>Data (geographic information models and structures)Organizational structures and work methodsSoftware componentsHardware components</p><p>computerdigitizerplotterprinterCD/DVD reader/writer</p><p>Components of a Geographic Information System</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>8</p><p>Functionalitiesof a GIS engine</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>9</p><p>REALITYa) Conceptual models</p><p>of the world</p><p>COMPLETELY DEFINED and DEFINABLE</p><p>OBJECTS/ENTITIES</p><p>NOT COMPLETELY DEFINED and DEFINABLE SPATIAL </p><p>ENTITIES</p><p>CONTINUOUS and SLOWVARIATIONS</p><p>OBJECTS ARE FORMED OF SIMPLER ENTITIES (ATOMIC </p><p>ENTITIES), THEIR ATTRIBUTES AND THEIR </p><p>MUTUAL RELATIONS</p><p>THE WORLD CONSISTS OF SETS OF DISCRETE OBJECTS, </p><p>WITH ATTRIBUTES AND MUTUAL RELATIONS</p><p>THE WORLD CONSISTS OF CONTINUOUS AND SLOWLY </p><p>CHANGING FIELDS</p><p>SAMPLING AND/OR INTERPOLATION(SCANNED IMAGES,</p><p>INTERPOLATED SURFACES)</p><p>CONTINUOUS MATHEMATICAL </p><p>FUNCTIONS</p><p>DISCRETIZED SURFACES CONTINUOUS NON-DIFFERENTIABLE MATHEMATICAL </p><p>EQUATIONS(FRACTALS, STOCHASTIC </p><p>SURFACES)</p><p>OBJECTSFILTERING</p><p>b) Data models</p><p>c) Representation</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>10</p><p>GIS environment/landscapeplanning applications</p><p> Environment/landscape condition: analysis and </p><p>control</p><p>Human activities planning</p><p>Environment/landscape-oriented actions</p><p> Research in environment/landscape planning fields</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>11</p><p>Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 1</p><p> Production of geographic archives, thematic maps and inventories (both local or accessible through the Internet)</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>12</p><p>Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 2</p><p>Examples:</p><p> automate the elaboration of an Environmental Assessment </p><p> automate the formation of instruments to support eco-planning and land planning government;</p><p> priorities selection and environmental policies adjustment to create environmental Action Plans.</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>13</p><p>Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 3</p><p> Scientific research in environment / landscape planning fields:</p><p>3D models of the GRASS GIS: meteorologicalanalysis (Steve Hall, Markus Neteler)</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>14</p><p>Scales for GIS applications</p><p> Microlocal (e.g.: quarry control) Local (e.g.: drainage interventions) Regional (es: avalanche control) National (es: disaster forecasting) Continental/Global obviously the GIS will have different resolutions / detail</p><p>levels</p><p>What is the scale of a GIS?</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>15</p><p>Outline of an environmental GIS</p><p> Data modeling in environmental GIS</p><p> Basic functionalities</p><p> Specific functionalities</p><p>BASIC FUNCTIONALITIES</p><p>SPECIFICFUNCTIONALITIES</p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL DATA (GEOREFERENCED OR NOT) </p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>16</p><p>Environmental GIS data Vector and raster maps</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>17</p><p>Example: download from</p><p>DEMO:try byyourself!</p><p>your request succeeded!check your email box</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>18</p><p>InstallQuantum GIS on yourcomputer;in the exampleQuantum GIS 1.6</p><p>Open yourvectordata</p><p>Where find I Quantum GIS?</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>19</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>20</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>21</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>22set transparency</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>23</p><p>Environmental GIS data</p><p> Field observations</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>24</p><p>Environmental GIS data</p><p> Orthoimages and remotelysensed images</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>25</p><p>Environmental GIS data</p><p> Digital Surface Models(DSM) and Digital TerrainModels (DTM)</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>26</p><p>Environmental GIS data</p><p> Primary thematic maps</p></li><li><p>M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems</p><p>27</p><p>Environmental GIS data</p><p> Derived thematic maps</p></li></ul>


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