Introduction to Geographic Information - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems 2 An information system is an organized set of procedures human resources material resources

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  • Introduction to GeographicInformation Systems

    Environment and Land Planning Applications

    Prof. Maria Antonia BrovelliPolitecnico di Milano

    Polo Regionale di Como

  • M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

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    An information system is an organized set of

    procedureshuman resourcesmaterial resources

    used to

    gatherstoreprocesscommunicate

    information needed by an organization to manage itsoperational and government activities.

    Definition of Information System

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    We define GIS (Geographic Information System) as a structureconstituted by a powerful set of instruments and technologiescommitted to acquire, store, manage, transform, analyze and visualizegeoreferenced spatial data.

    Georeferenced information: every document or event referred to a particular portion of Earths surface is an example of georeferencedinformation

    Geospatial information: every document or event that is alsorepresented from a cartographic point of view or by maps or aerial/satellite images is an example of geospatial information

    Often the two terms (georeferenced and geospatial) are used assynonyms.

    Geographic Information System

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    Spatial or geographic data represent REAL WORLD PHENOMENA and they are characterized by:

    their POSITION in space with respect to a reference and coordinate systemNON-SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES (color, temperature, etc)mutual SPATIAL RELATIONS (topological, directional, distance relations)

    The definition of a GIS contextually requires the definition of its objectives and methods

    GIS OBJECTIVES means the set of results pursued at the moment of the definition and creation of the GIS itself

    GIS METHODS means the set of operators, coded in an abstract form, which allows to accomplish such objectives

    Geographic Information System

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    Definitions ...

    a) GIS definitions based on the concept of DatabaseA database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database

    Smith T.R., S. Menon, J.L. Starr, and J.E. Estes, 1987.Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems. International J. of Geographical Information Systems, 1: 13-31.

    any manual or computer based set of procedures used to store andmanipulate geographically referenced dataAronoff S., 1989. Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective. WDL Publ., Ottawa, Canada.

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    Definitions ...b) GIS defined as a structure constituted by a set of

    instruments and technologiesa powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real worldBurrough P., McDonnel A. (1998) Principles of Geographical Information Systems Oxford University Press, Oxford

    A system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth Department of Environment (DoE), 1987. Handling Geographic Information. HMSO, London, 1988

    c) GIS definitions based on organizational aspectsa decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environmentCowen D.J., 1988. GIS versus CAD versus DBMS: what are the differences? Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54: 1551-1554

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    Data (geographic information models and structures)Organizational structures and work methodsSoftware componentsHardware components

    computerdigitizerplotterprinterCD/DVD reader/writer

    Components of a Geographic Information System

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    Functionalitiesof a GIS engine

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    REALITYa) Conceptual models

    of the world

    COMPLETELY DEFINED and DEFINABLE

    OBJECTS/ENTITIES

    NOT COMPLETELY DEFINED and DEFINABLE SPATIAL

    ENTITIES

    CONTINUOUS and SLOWVARIATIONS

    OBJECTS ARE FORMED OF SIMPLER ENTITIES (ATOMIC

    ENTITIES), THEIR ATTRIBUTES AND THEIR

    MUTUAL RELATIONS

    THE WORLD CONSISTS OF SETS OF DISCRETE OBJECTS,

    WITH ATTRIBUTES AND MUTUAL RELATIONS

    THE WORLD CONSISTS OF CONTINUOUS AND SLOWLY

    CHANGING FIELDS

    SAMPLING AND/OR INTERPOLATION(SCANNED IMAGES,

    INTERPOLATED SURFACES)

    CONTINUOUS MATHEMATICAL

    FUNCTIONS

    DISCRETIZED SURFACES CONTINUOUS NON-DIFFERENTIABLE MATHEMATICAL

    EQUATIONS(FRACTALS, STOCHASTIC

    SURFACES)

    OBJECTSFILTERING

    b) Data models

    c) Representation

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    GIS environment/landscapeplanning applications

    Environment/landscape condition: analysis and

    control

    Human activities planning

    Environment/landscape-oriented actions

    Research in environment/landscape planning fields

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    Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 1

    Production of geographic archives, thematic maps and inventories (both local or accessible through the Internet)

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    Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 2

    Examples:

    automate the elaboration of an Environmental Assessment

    automate the formation of instruments to support eco-planning and land planning government;

    priorities selection and environmental policies adjustment to create environmental Action Plans.

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    Environment/landscape planning GIS purposes - 3

    Scientific research in environment / landscape planning fields:

    3D models of the GRASS GIS: meteorologicalanalysis (Steve Hall, Markus Neteler)

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    Scales for GIS applications

    Microlocal (e.g.: quarry control) Local (e.g.: drainage interventions) Regional (es: avalanche control) National (es: disaster forecasting) Continental/Global obviously the GIS will have different resolutions / detail

    levels

    What is the scale of a GIS?

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    Outline of an environmental GIS

    Data modeling in environmental GIS

    Basic functionalities

    Specific functionalities

    BASIC FUNCTIONALITIES

    SPECIFICFUNCTIONALITIES

    ENVIRONMENTAL DATA (GEOREFERENCED OR NOT)

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    Environmental GIS data Vector and raster maps

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    Example: download fromhttp://www.cartografia.regione.lombardia.it/geoportale

    DEMO:try byyourself!

    your request succeeded!check your email box

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    InstallQuantum GIS on yourcomputer;in the exampleQuantum GIS 1.6

    Open yourvectordata

    Where find I Quantum GIS? http://www.qgis.org/wiki/Download

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  • M.A.Brovelli - Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

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    Environmental GIS data

    Field observations

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    Environmental GIS data

    Orthoimages and remotelysensed images

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    Environmental GIS data

    Digital Surface Models(DSM) and Digital TerrainModels (DTM)

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    Environmental GIS data

    Primary thematic maps

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    Environmental GIS data

    Derived thematic maps

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