ing - home.czu.cz a2.docx  web viewit is an ugly word. (ugly se vztahuje k podstatn©mu...

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Ing

Ing. Ivan HrbekMgr. Tereza Vogeltanzov

Strun pehled gramatiky pro rove A2s odkazy na uebnici Lifestyle Pre-Intermediate

Katedra jazyk, Provozn ekonomick fakulta, esk zemdlsk univerzita v Praze

Obsah

Ptomn asy (present tenses)4

Ptomn as prost (present simple)4

Pravidla vslovnosti pro 3. osobu jednotnho sla:4

Pslovce etnosti (frequency adverbs) + dal psloven uren asu5

Ptomn as prbhov (present continuous)5

Ptomn as prbhov nebo prost? (present continuous or present simple?)6

Pedptomn as (present perfect)7

Minul asy (past tenses)9

Minul as prost (past simple)9

Minul as prost (past simple) nebo pedptomn as (present perfect)11

Minul as prbhov (past continuous)12

Budouc as a modln slovesa (future forms and modal verbs)12

(Be) going to13

Ptomn as prbhov (present continuous)14

Modln sloveso (modal verb) will14

Modln slovesa vyjadujc monost vbudoucnosti (future possibility modals)15

Modln slovesa vyjadujc povinnost a povolen (Obligation and permission modals)15

can a cant15

must, have to a need to 16

mustnt, dont have to a dont need to16

should a shouldnt16

Podmnkov vty (conditional sentences)18

Interpunkce18

Prvn kondicionl a podobn tvary (first conditional and similar forms)19

Druh kondicionl (second conditional)19

Trpn rod (passive)20

Podstatn (nouns) a pdavn jmna (adjectives)21

Poitateln a nepoitateln podstatn jmna (countable and uncountable nouns)21

Urit a neurit len bez lenu (definite+ indefinite + zero article)23

Mnon slo podstatnch jmen (plural)24

Zkladn pravidla pro psan velkch psmen (capital letters)24

Stupovn pdavnch jmen (comparative and superlative adjectives)24

slovky (numbers)26

Zkladn a adov slovky (cardinal and ordinal numbers)26

Seznam nepravidelnch sloves (irregular verb list)26

Zjmena (pronouns)26

Vztan zjmena: who a which26

Zjmena ukazovac this, that, these, those26

Zjmena osobn a pivlastovac (personal pronouns and possessive adjectives)27

Pivlastovac pd (possessives)27

Tvary ing28

Ptomn asy (present tenses)

Ptomn as prost (present simple)

Lifestyle: str. 164

Pouit:

Ptomn as prost pouvme, mluvme-li o opakovanch innostech, dlouhodobch situacch, o vcech, kter jsou vdy pravda a tehdy, mluvme-li o faktech i relich.

I play football every Saturday.

She works for a software company.

Customers want low prices.

Tvary:

(+)

I / you / we / they work.

he / she / it works. 3. osoba jednotnho sla pibr koncov s (viz ne)

(-)

Zpor tvome pouitm pomocnho do not (dont), v ppad 3. osoby jednotnho sla does not (doesnt) + infinitivu slovesa! Take zporn vta zn: He does not work. Nikoli: He does not works.

I / you / we / they do not (dont) work.

he / she / it does not (doesnt) work.

(?)

Otzku tvome pomoc pomocnho Do / Does umstnho ped podmt.

Do I / you / we / they work?

Does he / she / it work?

Where do you work?

Krtk odpov:

V krtk odpovdi pouijeme pslun osobn zjmeno + pomocn do / does v kladnch vtch, dont a doesnt v zpornch vtch. Vznamov sloveso se ji neopakuje.

Do you work in a garage? Yes, I do. Nikoli: Yes, I work.

Does he pay cash? No, he doesnt. Nikoli: No, he doesnt pay.

Pravidla pravopisu pro 3. osobu jednotnho sla:

1. Vtina sloves pibr -s: speak speaks, work works.

2. Do, go pibraj -es: do does, go goes.

3. Slovesa zakonen na ch, sh, s, ss, x, z pibraj es: miss misses, watch watches, wash washes, fix fixes.

4. Slovesa zakonen na y:

a. nsleduje-li y po samohlsce, sloveso pouze pibr s: play plays, say says, stay stays.

b. nsleduje-li y po souhlsce, -y se mn na ies (zmkuje): cry cries, fly flies, study studies.

5. Sloveso have m pro 3. osobu jednotnho slo (he, she, it) tvar has.

Pravidla vslovnosti pro 3. osobu jednotnho sla:

Vslovnost koncovho s 3. osoby jednotnho sla zle na koncovce slovesa. Nkter anglick souhlsky jsou znl a nkter neznl. Pitisknte si dva prsty na krk. eknte ssssssssss. Potom eknte zzzzzzzz. Kdy vyslovte s, nemli byste ctit dn vibrace, kdy vyslovte z, mli byste vibrace ctit. Vibrace je zpsobena znlost souhlsky.

Mezi znl souhlsky pat nap.: l, n, v, m

Mezi neznl souhlsky pat nap.: p, t, k, f (pomcka: pite kafe)

U sloves zakonench znlou souhlskou vyslovujeme koncov sjako z: calls, learns, receives, comes, plays, goes

U sloves zakonench neznlou souhlskou vyslovujeme koncov sjako s: stops, talks, laughs, supports, looks

Zvltn ppady: u sloves zakonench sykavkou pidejte dal slabiku a tete iz: passes, advises, fixes, changes, watches.

Pslovce etnosti (frequency adverbs) + dal psloven uren asu

Lifestyle: str. 165

Postaven ve vt slovosled:

1. Uren asu vyjden dvma anebo vce slovy (every month, on Monday, in the evening), ppadn udvajc konkrtn dobu (today, tomorrow), klademe zpravidla na konec vty: They dont work tomorrow. She plays the guitar in the evening.

2. Pslovce etnosti (frequency adverbs) vyjden jednm slovem (often, always, never, ever ppadn sloen tvary jako nap. hardly ever) klademe obvykle ped vznamov sloveso (v kladnch i zpornch vtch i votzkch): I often watch TV. Do you often watch TV? I dont often watch TV. ALE u slovesa be je klademe a za sloveso be: Jim is never late for meetings. Buses arent always on time.

Ptomn as prbhov (present continuous)

Lifestyle: str. 165

Pouit:

Ptomn as prbhov pouvme, mluvme-li o innostech, probhajcch prv te i zhruba te a o krtkodobch aktivitch. Dle pouvme as prbhov pro vyjden pechodnch zleitost a vyjden plnu vblzk budoucnosti (viz ne Budouc as a modln slovesa).

Im waiting for my flight.

Were working here in Denver for a week.

I am staying with my sister in London this summer.

Pouvme ho rovn, kdy mluvme o souasnch trendech.

The number of passengers is rising.

Tvary:

Sloveso be + vznamov sloveso + ing

(+)

I am working,

you are working,

he/she/it is working,

we/you/they are working.

Staen tvary viz sloveso be.

(-)

Zpor tvome stejn jako u slovesa be pomoc not: I am not working, you are not working, atd. Staen tvary viz sloveso be.

(?)

Otzku tvome zmnou slovosledu: Are you working? Is he working?

Krtk odpov:

Vkladn krtk odpovdi musme pout pln tvary:

Is Tom working on a new project? Yes, he is. Nikoli: Yes, hes.

Vzporn krtk odpovdi pouvme tvary staen.

Are Federico and Enrica going to the cinema now? No, they arent.

Pravidla pravopisu pro koncovku -ing:

1. Vtina sloves pibr -ing: speak speaking, work working.

2. Slovesa zakonen e vypout koncov -e: drive driving, dance dancing, write writing.

3. U jednoslabinch sloves koncch jednou samohlskou + souhlskou se koncov souhlska zdvojuje: shop shopping, sit sitting, stop stopping. !POZOR! koncov -x nebo w se nezdvojuje: fix fixing, chew chewing.

4. U dvouslabinch sloves koncch jednou samohlskou + souhlskou s pzvukem na posledn slabice se koncov souhlska zdvojuje: begin - beginning, forget forgetting. !POZOR! je-li pzvuk na prvn slabice, koncov souhlska se nezdvojuje: happen happening, listen listening

5. Dvouslabin slovesa konc jednou samohlskou + -L, L v britsk anglitin zdvojujeme bez ohledu na pzvuk: travel travelling, cancel cancelling.

6. !POZOR! Slovesa zakonen na y vdy pibraj koncovku ing: play playing, study studying. Zde neplat zmkovn! Nikoli: She is studiing.

7. Sloveso lie m prbhov tvar lying, sloveso die dying.

Ptomn as prbhov nebo prost? (present continuous or present simple?)

Ptomn as prbhov pouvme, mluvme-li o innostech probhajcch prv te i zhruba te. asto zde pouvme vrazy jako: now, today, at the moment, this evening, this month apod.

Ptomn as prost pouvme, mluvme-li o opakovanch innostech, dlouhodobch situacch a vcech, kter jsou vdy pravda. asto zde pouvme vrazy jako: usually, always, often, normally, ever, never, when, apod.

Ptomn as prbhov: Please be quiet. The doctor is working. (now). x

Ptomn as prost: Doctors normally work from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Ptomn as prbhov: What is he doing? Is he writing a letter to his mother? (now). x

Ptomn as prost: He usually writes letters to his mother three times a month.

!POZOR! Existuj slovesa, kter se obvykle nepouvaj vprbhovm tvaru (plat to pro prbhov asy ve vech asovch rovinch ptomn, minul, budouc, pedptomn apod.): believe, depend, forget, hate, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, remember, understand, want, see, hear, smell, have (ve smyslu nco vlastnit: ekneme I have two cars. Nikoli: I am having two cars. Ale: She cant come to the phone she is having a shower.)

Pklady:

I love you. Nikoli: I am loving you. What do you want? Nikoli: What are you wanting?

Pedptomn as (present perfect)

Lifestyle: str. 165

Pouit:

Pedptomn as pouvme, mluvme-li o minulosti a souasnosti zrove, mluvme-li o innosti, kter vminulosti zaala, ale jet neskonila.

1. Souasn vsledky pedptomn as pouvme pro udlosti vminulosti, jejich vsledky jsou dleit i vptomnosti:

We have improved the design. (nyn je lep).I have finished the report. (te ti ho mohu dt).

2. Oznmen novch zprv -

He has just bought a new house.

They have updated their website.

3.