india’s first empires - 6th grade social studies · maurya empire and the political and moral...

of 13 /13
I ndia’s F irst E mpires Looking Back, Looking Ahead In the last section, you learned about Hinduism and Buddhism. Both religions developed when India was a land of small kingdoms. These rival kingdoms would be forced to unite, however, when foreigners invaded. Focusing on the The Mauryan dynasty built India’s first great empire. (page 260) The Gupta empire reunited much of northern India and became wealthy through trade. (page 264) The Mauryan and Gupta empires made important contributions in literature, mathematics, and science. (page 265) Locating Places Pataliputra ( PAH tuh lih POO truh) Meeting People Chandragupta Maurya (CHUHN druh GUP tuh MAH oor yuh) Asoka (uh SOH kuh) Kalidasa (KAH lih DAH suh) Content Vocabulary dynasty (DY nuh stee) stupa (STOO puh) pilgrim (PIHL gruhm) Academic Vocabulary dominate (DAH muh NAYT) concept (KAHN SEHPT) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Create a chart, identifying the important dates, capital, and government of the Mauryan empire. 321 B. C. Chandragupta Maurya founds Mauryan dynasty 232 B. C. Mauryan ruler Asoka dies A.D . 320 Gupta empire begins Pataliputra 350 B. C. A.D .1 A.D . 350 350 B. C. A.D .1 A.D . 350 Dates Capital City Government Mauryan Empire History Social Science Standards WH6.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India. CHAPTER 4 • Early India 259

Author: others

Post on 10-Feb-2020




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • India’s FirstEmpires

    Looking Back, Looking AheadIn the last section, you learned

    about Hinduism and Buddhism. Bothreligions developed when India was aland of small kingdoms. These rivalkingdoms would be forced to unite,however, when foreigners invaded.

    Focusing on the • The Mauryan dynasty built India’s

    first great empire.(page 260)

    • The Gupta empire reunited much ofnorthern India and became wealthythrough trade.(page 264)

    • The Mauryan and Gupta empires madeimportant contributions in literature,mathematics, and science.(page 265)

    Locating PlacesPataliputra

    (PAH • tuh • lih • POO • truh)

    Meeting PeopleChandragupta Maurya (CHUHN•

    druh•GUP•tuh MAH•oor•yuh)Asoka (uh•SOH•kuh) Kalidasa (KAH• lih•DAH•suh)

    Content Vocabularydynasty (DY• nuh•stee)stupa (STOO• puh)pilgrim (PIHL•gruhm)

    Academic Vocabularydominate (DAH• muh• NAYT)concept (KAHN• SEHPT)

    Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Create achart, identifying the important dates,capital, and government of theMauryan empire.

    321 B.C.Chandragupta Maurya founds Mauryan dynasty

    232 B.C.Mauryan ruler Asoka dies

    A.D. 320Gupta empire begins


    350 B.C. A.D. 1 A.D. 350350 B.C. A.D. 1 A.D. 350


    Capital City


    Mauryan Empire

    HistorySocial ScienceStandardsWH6.5 Studentsanalyze the geographic,political, economic,religious, and socialstructures of the earlycivilizations of India.

    CHAPTER 4 • Early India 259

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 1/5/05 4:40 AM Page 259

  • WH6.5.6 Describe the growth of the Maurya empire and the political and moral achievements of the emperor Asoka.

    The Mauryan DynastyThe Mauryan dynasty built India’s first

    great empire.Reading Connection Do you think political leadersshould promote religion? How might religion help a kinghold his country together? Read to learn why oneIndian emperor decided to support Buddhism.

    India’s princes fought over their smallkingdoms for centuries. Then two big inva-sions taught the Indians a lesson. First, thePersians invaded the Indus Valley in the

    500s B.C. and made it part of the greatPersian Empire. Then, Alexander the Great,a Greek general you will read about inChapter 8, invaded India in 327 B.C.

    Although Alexander’s troops conquerednorthern India, he did not stay long. His sol-diers were homesick and tired and threat-ened to rebel unless he turned back. Theinvasion did have one important effect, how-ever. It led to the first great Indian empire.

    Who Built India’s First Empire? India’sfirst empire was founded by Chandragupta

    Maurya (CHUHN • druh • GUP • tuhMAH • oor • yuh). Chandraguptawas an Indian prince who con-quered a large area in theGanges River valley soon afterAlexander invaded westernIndia. Alexander’s invasionweakened many of India’skingdoms. After Alexander left,Chandragupta seized theopportunity to conquer andunite almost all of northernIndia.

    He founded the Mauryandynasty in 321 B.C. A dynasty(DY • nuh • stee) is a series ofrulers from the same family. Torun his empire, Chandraguptaset up a centralized govern-ment. In a centralized govern-ment, rulers run everythingfrom a capital city. To maintaincontrol from his capital ofPataliputra (PAH • tuh • lih • POO •truh), Chandragupta had tohave a strong army. He alsoneeded a good spy system tomake sure no one was plan-ning to rebel. Communicationswere also important, so he setup a postal system.

    260 CHAPTER 4 • Early India









    s Rive




    ges River

    TopraMirath Nigliva


    Lalita Patan(Kathmandu)



    300 km0Azimuthal Equidistant projection

    300 mi.0



    W E

    Mauryan Empire c. 250 B.C.

    Pillar inscribed withBuddhist teachingsHeight of Mauryanempire under Asoka


    1. Location Where was the Mauryancapital of Pataliputra located?

    2. Movement What part of India didthe Mauryans not conquer?

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 1/5/05 4:41 AM Page 260

  • 6.4.6. Compare and contrast life in Athensand Sparta, with emphasis on their rules inthe Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.

    CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYARuled 321–298 B.C.Chandragupta Maurya may have come from

    humble birth, but he was a powerful ruler. Part of hisgreat success was the result of knowing how to takeadvantage of a good opportunity. Alexander theGreat’s conquests in northwest India had left theregion there, called Punjab, weak. The Indians were nothappy about foreign rulers. Beginning in 317 B.C.,Chandragupta began attacking the Greek overlords.He was successful and quickly organized a powerfularmy. Greek rulers left the region rather than prolongthe fight.

    Later, in 305 B.C., the Greek ruler Seleucus tried toretake Greek territory in India. Chandragupta raised apowerful army with more than 9,000 war elephants.It did not take Seleucus long to rethink engaging inbattle. Instead, he formed an alliance with the Indianruler. Instead of losing territory in war, Chandraguptaforced Seleucus to give up lands through a treaty.

    After conquering most of India, Chandraguptawent about establishing the governmental system. Heused local rulers and had a council of governors tohelp him. Because of the size of the empire, manysupervisors were required on the local level. However,Chandragupta maintained authority over mostmatters. He also developed an extensive spy networkto keep him notified of happenings in his capital cityand within the army. Having conquered the regionhimself, he did not want someone else to come alongand overthrow him.

    Late in his life, Chandragupta is said to have converted to Jainism. Having spent much of his efforts in battle or ruling the country, he decided to turn to a simpler way of living. Despite this,his grandson, Asoka, also became a powerful military leader for a time.


    Chandragupta Maurya

    Chandragupta used a powerful military to keepthe peace. Do you think that a large military isnecessary in today’s world? Explain andprovide examples to support your answer.

    WH6.5.6 Describe the growth of theMaurya empire and the political and moralachievements of the emperor Asoka.

    z (l)Robert Harding Picture Library, (r)Hugh Sitton/Getty Images

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 1/13/05 2:23 PM Page 261

  • 262 CHAPTER 4 • Early India

    This stupa from central India is one of the best-preservedshrines from the 200s B.C. What other type of structuredid Indians create to honor the Buddha?

    The Buddha

    Emperor Asoka’s Reign Chandraguptafounded the Mauryan dynasty, but manyhistorians think the empire’s greatest kingwas Asoka (uh • SOH • kuh). Asoka ruledfrom about 273 B.C. to 232 B.C.

    Asoka was an unusual ruler. Like manykings, he was a strong military leader, buthe came to hate bloodshed. After onebloody fight, he walked over the battlefield.When he saw the dead and wounded, hewas horrified. He later made a vow to ded-icate his life to peace and follow the teach-ings of the Buddha.

    Asoka focused on the welfare of oth-ers. He created hospitals for people andfor animals, too. He built new roads so itwas easier to trade and put shelters andshade trees along the roads where travel-ers could rest.

    Asoka sent many Buddhist teachersthroughout India and the rest of Asia. Theycarried the religion to new believers. In India,laborers carved the Buddha’s teachings onstone pillars for people to read. Asoka also

    had laborers build thousands of stupas(STOO • puhs). Stupas are Buddhist shrinesthat have the shape of a dome or mound.Although he was a Buddhist, Asokaallowed his Hindu subjects to practice theirreligion.

    With a good road system and a strongruler, the empire prospered. India becamethe center of a huge trade network thatstretched to the Mediterranean Sea.

    The Fall of the Mauryan Empire Asokadied in 232 B.C. Unfortunately, the kingswho followed him were not very good lead-ers, and the empire grew weak.

    These kings made bad decisions thatturned the people against them. They forcedmerchants to pay heavy taxes and seizedpeasants’ crops for themselves. Things wereso bad that in 183 B.C., the last Mauryan rulerwas killed by one of his own generals.

    Summarize Why wasAsoka an important ruler?

    (l)Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (r)Hulton Archive/Getty Images News Services

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 3/14/06 4:27 PM Page 262

  • 6.4.6. Compare and contrast life in Athensand Sparta, with emphasis on their rules inthe Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.

    EMPEROR ASOKAReigned c. 273–232 B.C.In the early years of his reign, Asoka was a powerful

    military ruler. He used his armies to conquer and unifyalmost all of India under one leader. After watching avery bloody battle that left many people dead, however,he decided to stop fighting and follow Buddhism.

    Emperor Asoka vowed to relieve suffering whereverhe found it. He discovered that Buddhism reflected hisnew beliefs, so he became a Buddhist.

    Emperor Asoka had a strong, energetic personality. Hebegan preaching Buddhist ideas that people should behonest, truthful, and nonviolent. He preached that peopleshould live with compassion toward all humans andanimals.Asoka taught by example and tried to live his lifewith “little sin and many good deeds.” He ordered hisgovernment officials to adopt those virtues for their ownlives. He helped spread the concepts of Buddhism andahimsa, or nonviolence, throughout his empire and

    abroad. At the same time,Asoka practiced tolerancetoward other religions.

    Emperor Asoka regularly visited people in the rural areasof his kingdom and found practical ways to improve theirlives. He founded hospitals and supplied medicine. Heordered wells to be dug and trees to be planted along theroads. He also ordered his officials to keep him informed ofthe needs of the people in his empire.


    Asoka combined religion and government. Doyou think that the two should be combined orkept separate? Explain, providing examples tosupport your answer.

    WH6.5.6 Describe the growth of theMaurya empire and the political and moralachievements of the emperor Asoka.

    Carving from top of pillar created under Asoka


    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 1/5/05 4:45 AM Page 263

  • WH6.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.

    The Gupta EmpireThe Gupta empire reunited much of

    northern India and became wealthy through trade.Reading Connection What types of products doesthe United States trade with other countries? Read tolearn how the Gupta empire built its wealth on trade.

    For 500 years, India had no strong ruler.Once again, small kingdoms fought with oneanother and made life miserable for theirsubjects. Then, in A.D. 320, one prince in theGanges River valley grew more powerfulthan the others. Like an earlier ruler, hisname was Chandragupta. This Chandra-gupta chose to rule from the old capital of theMauryan empire—Pataliputra.

    Chandragupta founded the Gupta dy-nasty. When he died, his son, Samudragupta,took over the throne and expanded theGupta empire in northern India. Soon, thenew kingdom dominated almost all of northern India. The Guptas ruled for about200 years. Gupta rulers had one advantageover the earlier Mauryan kings. The em-pire was smaller and that made it easier tomanage.

    The Gupta empire grew wealthy fromtrade. Salt, cloth, and iron were commongoods traded in India. Indian merchants alsotraded with China and with kingdoms insoutheast Asia and the Mediterranean. TheGupta rulers controlled much of the tradeand became very wealthy. They owned silverand gold mines and large estates.

    Trade created jobs for people in India andmade many people and cities prosperous.Cities grew up along the trade routes, andmany people traveled. Some people, calledpilgrims (PIHL•gruhms), often used the traderoutes to travel to a religious shrine or site.Just as cities today make money fromtourism, Indian cities that were famous fortheir temples became wealthy from dona-tions given by visiting pilgrims.

    Asoka had converted to Buddhism, butthe Guptas were Hindus like many of theirsubjects. They made Hinduism the officialreligion and gave money to support Hinduscholars and Hindu shrines. The shrines theybuilt to Hindu deities inspired Hindus. Theyoften had brightly painted sculptures ofimages from the Upanishads and othersacred writings.

    During the Gupta empire, art and sciencealso began to develop. Earlier, you learnedthat Greece had a golden age of art and learn-ing. India also had a golden age of art andlearning during the Gupta empire.

    Explain How did the Guptaempire become wealthy?

    500 km0Azimuthal Equidistant projection

    500 mi.0



    W E






    s R.

    Ganges R.



    KUSH H


    AL A Y A

    G u p t a E m p i r e

    I N D I A70°E




    1. Region What river valleys were foundwithin the borders of the Gupta empire?

    2. Movement How does the area of theGupta empire compare to that of theMauryan empire as shown on the map onpage 260?

    264 CHAPTER 4 • Early India

    Gupta Empire c. A.D. 600

    The British Library, London/Bridgeman Art Library

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 3/17/06 2:24 PM Page 264

  • WH6.5.7 Discuss important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature, including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine;metallurgy; and mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the zero).

    Indian Literature and Science The Mauryan and Gupta empires made

    important contributions in literature, mathematics,and science.Reading Connection What do you think modernmovies, books, and television reveal about our values?As you read, try to see if Indian poetry tells a storyabout values during the Gupta period.

    Artists, builders, scientists, and writersproduced many works while the Mauryanand Gupta kings ruled.

    India’s Sacred Texts The Vedas of India arean ancient collection of sacred verses,hymns, prayers, and teachings. No one iscertain how old they are because for a longtime they were only recited, not writtendown. Once Aryan people came to India anddeveloped Sanskrit, then the Vedas could be recorded.

    Later, other kinds of literature were alsowritten down in Sanskrit. Two sacred textsare very famous in India, and Indians todaystill love to read them. One is the Mahabharata(muh • HAH •BAH • ruh • tuh), and the other is theRamayana (rah•mah•YAH•nah). Both of thesesacred texts tell about brave warriors andtheir heroic deeds.

    The Mahabharata is a long sacred text—about 88,000 verses. Historians think severaldifferent authors wrote it and that it waswritten down around 100 B.C. It describes agreat war for control of an Indian kingdomabout 1,000 years earlier.

    The best-known section is the BhagavadGita (BAH•guh• VAHD GEE• tuh), or “Song of theLord.” In it, the deity Krishna accompaniesthe prince Arjuna to a great battle. Krishnapreaches a sermon to Arjuna. He tells himthat it is noble to do one’s duty even when itis difficult and painful.


    The Bhagavad GitaIn the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna prepares to go into battle. He asks the deity Krishnaquestions about war and death. The following passage is part of Krishna’s answer.“Thou grievest where no grief should be! . . .

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    All, that doth live, lives always! . . .

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    The soul that with a strong and constant calm

    Takes sorrow and takes joy indifferently,

    Lives in the life undying!—Bhagavadgita, Sir Edwin Arnold, trans.

    What does Krishna believe about life afterdeath?

    Painting titled Krishna and Maidens

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 4/3/06 9:54 AM Page 265

  • 266 CHAPTER 4 • Early India

    The teachings in the Mahabharata, espe-cially the Bhagavad Gita, contain many of thecentral beliefs in Hinduism. They provideimportant religious and moral lessons. Forthis reason, they have had a great impact onHinduism. Through the ages, many bookshave been written on it. It continues to influ-ence Indian philosophy in modern times.

    An important writer from the Guptaperiod is Kalidasa (KAH • lih • DAH • suh). Hewrote plays, poems, love stories, and come-dies. One popular poem, The Cloud

    Messenger, contains beautiful descriptions ofnorthern India’s mountains, forests, andrivers.

    Music, Art, and Architecture Musicplayed an important part in the religious andsocial lives of people in India. Many of theearly sacred texts like the Bhagavad Gitawere probably sung in group settings. Atannual festivals people danced, sang, and ategood food. They also used music in theirplays. Musical instruments included tam-bourines, flutes, drums, and lutes.

    Much of early Indian art was made ofmaterials that have not survived. What existstoday is mostly religious art made in stone.There are many sculptures of the Buddha, forexample. These statues teach differentBuddhist messages based on the figure’spose. Buddhist temples also used carvings oflocal scenes of the community.

    Hindu architecture typically had carvingsof people in different poses that representeddifferent aspects of eternity. They also createdimages of deities with many hands to showthat they had many abilities.

    Indian Math and Science Indian mathe-maticians, especially in the Gupta period,made important contributions. Aryabhata(AHR •yuh •BUHT •uh) was the leading math-ematician of the Gupta empire. He was one of the first scientists known to haveused algebra. Indian mathematicians devel-oped the idea of zero and a symbol to rep-resent it. They also explained the concept ofinfinity—something without an end.

    Gupta mathematicians created the sym-bols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we usetoday. These number symbols, or numerals,were adopted by Arab traders in the A.D. 700s. European traders borrowed them

    The Invention of Zero c. A.D. 500 Early humans understood the idea of nothing, but they did not have asymbol to represent that idea. During theGupta dynasty, Indian mathematicians

    invented the symbol“0” and connected itwith the idea ofnothing. The Indians’invention of zero hada great impact on thestudy of mathematicsand science—thenand now.Without theconcept of zero,modern technology,such as computers,would not be possible.

    The middle dotis the firstsymbol for zero.

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 3/17/06 1:51 PM Page 266

  • Study Central Need help understanding theadvances of the Mauryan and Gupta empires?Visit and click on Study Central.

    CHAPTER 4 • Early India 267

    Reading SummaryReview the • The Mauryan empire, under lead-

    ers such as Chandragupta Mauryaand Asoka, united most of Indiafor over a hundred years.

    • The Gupta dynasty reunitednorthern India and grew wealthyfrom trade.

    • During the Mauryan and Guptaempires, the arts and sciencesflourished in India. Several greatsacred texts, including theMahabharata and the Ramayana,came from this period.

    1. Describe trade during theGupta empire.

    2. What is the message of theBhagavad Gita?

    Critical Thinking3. Organizing Information

    Draw a diagram to show thecontributions of Indian mathe-maticians during the Mauryanand Gupta empires.

    4. Analyze How did Asoka’sactions as king show hisBuddhist beliefs?

    5. Create a time lineshowing the advances in art,science, and math in India.Include information telling whythese advances were impor-tant.

    6. Math Connection Whywould the development of anumber system be importantin a civilization that dependedon trade?

    7. Many historianssay that Asoka was the great-est ruler of the Mauryandynasty. Reread the sectionand decide if you agree. Write3 to 4 paragraphs supportingyour opinion. CA HR5.

    CA HI2.

    CA 6WS1.3

    CA HI2.

    CA 6RC2.3

    What Did You Learn?


    from the Arabs. Use of these numbersspread through Europe in the A.D. 1200s,replacing Roman numerals. Today, thissystem of number symbols is known as the Hindu-Arabic numerical system.

    Early Indians also invented mathemati-cal algorithms. An algorithm (AHL•gohr• ih•thuhm) is a series of steps that solve a prob-lem. If you follow the steps, you get the rightanswer. Computer programmers today oftenuse algorithms to tell computers what to do.

    Ancient Indians made important con-tributions in other scientific fields, espe-cially astronomy. They followed andmapped movements of planets and stars.They understood that the Earth was roundand revolved around the sun. They alsoseem to have understood gravity.

    Particularly under the Gupta, Indianscientists made advances in metallurgy, or

    metal technology. In addition to iron toolsand weapons, they made steel tools. Aniron pillar in Delhi dating from aroundA.D. 400 was so well made that it hashardly rusted. The Gupta also madesophisticated gold coins and metal mirrors.

    In the field of medicine, Gupta doctorswere advanced for their time. They couldset broken bones and perform operations.They also invented many medical tools.

    An Indian doctor named Shushruta(shoosh •ROO • tah) carried out an early formof plastic surgery. He worked to restoredamaged noses. Indian doctors used herbsin treating illnesses. They also believed itwas important to remove the causes of adisease and not just cure the disease itself.

    Summarize In what areasof science did ancient Indians make advances?

    259-267 Ch4 S3-868874 3/17/06 1:51 PM Page 267

  • Krishna’s Wise WordsIn the Hindu religion, the deity Krishna isthe teacher of the world. In this excerpt fromthe Hindu sacred text the Bhagavad Gita,Krishna explains some Hindu beliefs.

    19. If any man thinks he slays, and ifanother thinks he is slain, neitherknows the ways of truth. The Eternalin man cannot kill: the Eternal in mancannot die.

    20. He is never born, and he never dies.He is in Eternity: he is for evermore.Never-born and eternal, beyond timesgone or to come, he does not die whenthe body dies.

    21. When a man knows him as never-born,everlasting, never-changing, beyond alldestruction, how can that man kill aman, or cause another to kill?

    22. As a man leaves an old garment andputs on one that is new, the Spiritleaves his mortal body and then putson one that is new.

    23. Weapons cannot hurt the Spirit and firecan never burn him. Untouched is heby drenching waters, untouched is heby parching winds.

    —The Bhagavad Gita, Juan Mascaró, trans.

    India’s Early ReligionsAncient India’s two main religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, used sym-

    bols to convey ideas. These symbols represented something deeper and moreprofound than the simple image. While the two religions shared this commonform, they were quite different.

    Read the passages on pages 268 and 269, and answer the questions thatfollow.

    kinsmen (KIHNZ•mehn): relativessandalwood (SAN•duhl•WOOD): a tree

    with a sweet odor

    rosebay (ROHZ•BAY): an herbjasmine (JAZ•muhn): a sweet-smelling


    Reader’s Dictionary

    268 CHAPTER 4 • Early India


    WH6.5.5 Know the life and moralteachings of the Buddha and howBuddhism spread in India, Ceylon, andCentral Asia. WH6.5.7 Discussimportant aesthetic and intellectualtraditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature,including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine;metallurgy; and mathematics, includingHindu-Arabic numerals and the zero).

    268-271 CH4 CRA-868874 3/17/06 1:59 PM Page 268

  • A Buddhist StoryThe Buddha believed it was important for peopleto follow the Eightfold Path. In the followingpassages, the Buddha explains a few of his beliefs.

    TreasureA woman buries a treasure in a deep pit,

    thinking: “It will be useful in time of need, or ifthe king is displeased with me, or if I amrobbed or fall into debt, or if food is scarce, orbad luck befalls me.”

    But all this treasure may not profit theowner at all, for she may forget where she hashidden it, or goblins may steal it, or her ene-mies or even her kinsmen may take it whenshe is careless.

    But by charity, goodness, restraint, and self-control man and woman alike can store up awell-hidden treasure—a treasure which cannotbe given to others and which robbers cannotsteal. A wise person should do good—that isthe treasure which will not leave one.

    VirtueThe perfume of sandalwood,Rosebay or jasmineCannot travel against the wind,

    But the fragrance of virtueTravels even against the wind,As far as the ends of the world.

    Like garlands woven from a heap of flowers,Fashion from your life as many good deeds.

    —Teachings of the Buddha, edited by Jack Kornfield

    CHAPTER 4 • Early India 269

    The Buddha

    Krishna’s Wise Words1. What does Krishna mean when he says that

    the Spirit leaves the mortal body and puts onanother like a change of clothes?

    2. Why is the Spirit not affected by weapons orthe elements?

    A Buddhist Story3. How do you think the Buddha feels about

    money or other kinds of material wealth?

    4. How can you build up a treasure that willnever leave you?

    Read to Write5. Imagine that you have no knowledge of the

    Hindu and Buddhist religions. After readingthe two primary sources above, how wouldyou describe the religious ideas that areimportant in each religion? Write an essaythat describes the similarities between thetwo religions based on these two passages.

    CA 6WA2.2CA HI2.

    268-271 CH4 CRA-868874 1/5/05 5:08 AM Page 269

  • Standard WH6.5

    14. Explain How did the monsoons affect the development of India’s first civilizations?

    15. Predict What do you think might havehappened if Asoka had approved of theslaughter on the battlefield during hiswars of conquest?

    Geography SkillsStudy the map below and answer the follow-ing questions.16. Human/Environment Interaction Why

    did Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro developso near the Indus River?

    17. Place The winter monsoon winds comefrom the northeast. What makes the windsfrom that monsoon cold?

    18. Location Name at least two naturalfeatures that protected Harappa andMohenjo-Daro from invaders. CA CS3.

    CA CS3.

    CA CS3.

    CA HI2.

    CA CS3.

    Review Content Vocabulary1. Write a paragraph about the basic beliefs

    of Buddhism using the following words.reincarnation karma dharma

    Write the vocabulary word that bestcompletes each sentence. a. stupa d. pilgrimb. caste e. theocracyc. raja f. dynasty

    2. Each Aryan tribe was led by a ___.3. In a ___, government is led by religious

    leaders.4. A ___ is a line of rulers who belong to the

    same family.5. A ___ travels to religious places.

    Review the Section 1 • India’s First Civilizations

    6. What new technology did the Aryansintroduce to India?

    7. What was the purpose of the castesystem?

    Section 2 • Hinduism and Buddhism8. What is the link between the Aryans

    and Hinduism?9. Describe the differences between

    Hinduism and Buddhism.

    Section 3 • India’s First Empires10. Which dynasty built India’s first

    great empire? 11. What poem expresses many of

    Hinduism’s central beliefs?

    Critical Thinking12. Compare How do you think the Eightfold

    Path is similar to the Ten Commandmentsof Judaism?

    13. Analyze How does the Mahabharata reflectthe ideals of ancient India? CA 6RC2.7

    CA 6RC2.2

    270 CHAPTER 4 • Early India

    500 km0Azimuthal Equidistant projection

    500 mi.0



    W E



    s R.

    Ganges R.




    HI M

    AL A Y A

    I N D I A








    Early India

    Indus civilization,c. 1500 B.C.


    268-271 CH4 CRA-868874 1/5/05 5:10 AM Page 270

  • Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare forthe Chapter Test, visit

    Read to Write19. Persuasive Writing Literature

    written during the Mauryan empireplayed an important role in Indian beliefs.Write a paragraph in which you agree ordisagree with this statement.

    20. Using Your Use the informationyou recorded in your foldable to create afill-in-the-blank quiz for a classmate. Writea paragraph about one of the sections,leaving blanks for your classmates to fillin. Also write an answer key.

    Using Academic Vocabulary21. Using information from the chapter, write

    a sentence in the past tense for each of thewords below.

    affect dominaterequire

    Building Citizenship22. Analyzing Information Dharma is the

    Hindu idea of duty. Is it important forpeople in a society to do their duty? Makea list of duties Americans have today.Then write a paragraph explaining whythose duties are important.

    23. Persuasive Writing Under EmperorAsoka religion and government werecombined. Write an essay in which youdescribe what you think the relationshipbetween government and religion shouldbe.

    Linking Past and Present24. Learning From Writing After the Aryans

    arrived in India, they developed a writtenlanguage called Sanskrit. With this form ofwriting, the sacred songs and poems ofearly India could be recorded. Search yourlocal library for a book of modern poetry.Read some of the poems. How does thebook’s author introduce the poems? Writean essay describing what the poems tell usabout today’s society. CA 6RC2.1

    CA 6WA2.5

    CA HI2.

    CA 6RC2.4

    CA 6WA2.5

    CHAPTER 4 • Early India 271

    Select the best answer for each ofthe following questions.

    When the Indus River floodednearby land, it

    A forced early settlers to becomenomads.

    B left behind rich, fertile soilperfect for farming.

    C destroyed the first Indiancivilization, Harappa.

    D ruined crops and the peoplestarved.

    According to Siddhartha, theonly way to find the truthabout the world was to

    A give up all desires.B live like a hermit.C meditate for 49 days.D fast until you are nearly




    Reviewing Skills25. Questioning Select a part

    of the chapter that is interesting and writea series of questions about it that youwould like answered. Conduct researchand write down answers to the questionsyou posed.

    26. Fact and Opinion Rereadthe list of the Four Noble Truths on page250. Do you agree with these Truths? Whyor why not? Write an essay defendingyour position. CA HR2.

    CA HR1.

    268-271 CH4 CRA-868874 3/17/06 2:01 PM Page 271