Impacts of collaborative consumption on traditional industries: scenarios for the European car industry

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C"!! ! ?! </li> <li> Table of exhibitsExhibit 1: Collaborative consumption: drivers, principles and systems after Rachel Botsmanand Roo RogersExhibit 2: Collaborative consumption initiatives classified by industriesExhibit 3: Collaborative consumption SWOTExhibit 4: Impacts collaborative consumption can have on its macro-environment (PESTEL)Exhibit 5:Exhibit 6:!Private car sales evolution (1995-2011) after PWC-AutofactsExhibit 7:!Worldwide passenger car production evolution per region (2000-2011) after ACEAExhibit 8:!Vicious cycle Europe-centered manufacturers are inExhibit 9: New passenger cars registrations in Europe after PWC-AutofactsExhibit 10:! importance)Exhibit 11: New players in the automotive value chain up to 2030 (inspired by KPMG)Exhibit 12: Scenario methodExhibit 13: Risk mapExhibit 14: XXthExhibit 15: Matrix of scenariosExhibit 16: Challenges answers in the Baby you can drive my car worldExhibit 17: Challenges answers in the worldExhibit 18: Challenges answers in the Artificial paradises worldExhibit 19: Challenges answers in the ? world! @! </li> <li> List of abbreviationsATAWAD: AnyTime, AnyWhere, AnyDeviceAD: Anno DominiBC: Before ChristBRIC: Brazil, Russia, India, ChinaEU: European UnionGMO: Genetically Modified OrganismGPS: Global Positioning SystemICT: Information and Communications TechnologiesIEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersIS: Information SystemsLETS: Local Exchange Trading SystemLN: League of NationsLPG: Liquefied Petroleum GasOEM: Original Equipment ManufacturerP2P: Peer-to-peerPSA: Peugeot Socit AnonymePSS: Product Service SystemR&amp;D: Research and DevelopmentUN: United NationsUK: United KingdomUSA: United States of AmericaUSSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ! B! </li> <li> IntroductionThe global business environment is more complex and fast-moving than ever. On one hand,globalization, digital connectivity and consumption have hugely increased. Over the lasttwenty years, international trade and foreign investments more than tripled; mobile phonesubscriptions rose by 23,000 per cent and the number of Internet users grew by 29,000 percent; over a Billion people moved into cities with more resource intensive diets and life stylesand now, more than 1.8 Billion people are part of the global middle class. On the other hand,human activity, characterized by extensive use of resources, has caused more extensive andrapid changes to ecosystems in the last 20 years than at any other time in human history. Ithas various dramatic consequences such as loss in biodiversity, acidification of oceans,desertification, tropical deforestation and more. Shortages of a growing number of keyresources are becoming apparent, from water to fossil fuels, metals and arable lands. In thiscontext, businesses have to adapt and to place sustainability and connectivity at the core oftheir strategy. Those conditions, while challenging for traditional players create a fertileground for alternatives. In this category, collaborative consumption is an eminent example,the movement mainly based on the better utilization of resources have increasing impact ontraditional businesses even if yet difficult to assess. The car industry, an already old one butnot yet totally mature is an interesting case since it is undergoing profound changes. We willthen present in a first part the collaborative consumption movement, explaining its majordrivers, principles and systems and overviewing its strengths, weaknesses and its globalimpact. Secondly, we introduce the European car industry with a short history, key figuresand trends about its current situation and finally major challenges that are coming.In a last part, we will design scenarios in order to present different possible futures for theimpact of collaborative consumption on the European car industry. Based on these scenarios,recommendations for both car manufacturers and collaborative consumption companies willbe made.! 6G! </li> <li> 1. Collaborative consumption a. Short historyHumans collaborate since prehistoric times. Most ancient human societies (hunter-gatherersocieties in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals) are dated back asfar as 1.8 million years ago (Homo Erectus). They constantly needed to move around insearch of food, which limited the size of these societies. The main social functions were trade,deal for food and other resources, production and education. In spite of sophistication in thesubsistence strategies, the first sedentary sites only appeared during the interval of c.25000-17000 BC. The Natufian culture was the first to become sedentary at around 12000 BC.According to University of Connecticut scientist Natalie Munro, feasts, especially in a funeralcontext, may have played a key role, serving to integrate communities by providing the senseof community.1 Sedentism increased contacts and trade: the productive gift (cereals, cattle,sheep and goat) was exchanged through a network of large pre-agricultural sedentary sites.Sedentism is coupled with the adoption of agricultural and animal domestication. This led tothe rise of population aggregation and formation of villages, cities and other communitytypes. After the agricultural revolution (c. 8500 BC.), communities grew in numbers thanks toa more secured and increased food supply. Towns became centers of trade supporting variousrulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants and religious leaders. Rapidly, greater degrees ofsocial stratification appeared. Societies became more centralized with the shift to feudalsocieties (From 476 AD) and the power concentrated in the hands of landowners. With theindustrial revolution (which occurred between 1750 and 1850), the power became even moreconcentrated. Countries like United Kingdom and France were competing in the race toindustrialize. It was the rise of our current system, capitalism, ruled by open competition in afree market, in which the means of production are privately owned and where the economy isbased on machines powered by fuels for the production of goods. Thanks to innovations intextiles, steam power and iron making, the production dramatically increased.2Population boomed and many people moved to cities to find employment. After the secondindustrial revolution and throughout the XXth century, the mainstream system kept this racefor more individual profits and the pursuit of independence. It is the era of individualism.According to Robert D. Putnam, between 1975 and 2000, attendance at club meetings in theUnited States has fallen 58 percent, family dinners are down 33 percent and having friendsvisit has fallen 45 percent. 3 But the shift underway from an industrial society to a post-industrial society dominated by information, services and high technology gives us a differentvision. Information is a nonrival good and can be shared or gifted at practically no cost.Services allow people to be more than passive consumers and to interact regularly with theservice provider. With information technologies, people can communicate more, collaborateeasily and optimize resources through sharing systems. Usenet is a very early case of this.Back in 1979, one of the oldest computer network communications system was conceived:Usenet. It is a worldwide distributed discussion system where users can post or read messagesto one or more categories called newsgroups.In 1991, a young Finnish student posted a simple request on Usenet, asking feedback aboutthe operating system he was building during his free time. He received thousands of answers!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!6!NOOPHQQRRR7STUVWTVXYZYZ7TZ[QWVRSQAG6GG?:GAA6$#?XOX]O^_WT]S`S7SNO[a!A!NOOPHQQVW7RUbUPVUX7Z^YQRUbUQ-_[XW]SZTUVO`!:!9_OWX[c!0ZdV^O!37!6789):;197:%7:#"*9%H8X^TN!AG6A!6"!NOOPHQQRRR7Yf[XY7TZ[QOZZaSQYaZdXaDXOXdXSVQVTZWZ[UTDXOXQ66@#$DRZ^aSD_WV[PaZ`[VWOD^XOVS7NO[alXhggAB$):58%.%:AGG6! ! 6?! </li> <li> use because of fashion (clothes), temporary need (baby products and games), diminishing appeal and value after usage (films, books) or high purchasing costs (luxury or electronic goods) are well suited for such a business model. Extended-life PSS. After-sales services such as maintenance, repair or upgrading Products that are expensive or difficult to repair (electronic goods), that need frequent updates or maintenance to be secure and appealing fit well in this scheme.This business model is at the heart of the circular economy (systemic vision of the economywhere there is no waste, just biological nutrients designed to reenter the biosphere safely andtechnical nutrients designed to circulate without entering the biosphere as opposition to our ). It can have huge positive impacts on theenvironment. It is estimated that just shifting a fifth of household spending from purchasing torenting would cut annual CO2 emissions by about 2 per cent (13 million tones of CO2).20 2. Redistribution marketsUsed goods have been exchanged for centuries. The first known handwritten notices listinggoods people wanted or goods they have to give away date back to XVth century in England.Today, redistributing happens without thinking about it: forward an email, list used goods onor social networks are all forms of redistribution. It has neverbeen easier to form groups and communities than today, enabling redistributions markets toscale like never before. There are more than 221 million eBay members trading more than$52 billion of goods each year. Very useless goods for a person A can have a high value for aperson B and platforms such as eBay allow the transaction between person A and B avoidinghim/her to buy a new product. A less capitalistic form of redistribution is also growing on theInternet especially for media contents: swapping. The most common form is a three-way swap(e.g. User A send a CD to user B, B send a video game to User C and User C send a DVD toUser A) since the coincidence of wants is very limited in a two-way form. Experience showsthat swapping can provide choice and instant gratification as conventional shopping does andthat it becomes an habit for most users that subscribed to such websites. Once again, thepositive environmental impact can be significant. Even with the impact of transportationassociated to the transaction of the (re)used good, using and reusing is still better than buyingsomething new. According to William McDonough, one of the fathers of circular economy, aproduct itself contains only 5 per cent of the raw materials used to produce it. 3. Collaborative lifestylesout 7 collaborative lifestyles: Co-working: Style of work that involves a shared working environment, generally an office, and independent activity (coworkers are employed by different organizations). It was developed by nomadic Internet entrepreneurs seeking an alternative to working in coffee shops and/or to isolation in home or independent offices. Its growth is linked to the raise of teleworking (work is no longer associated to a place but more with...</li></ul>