How to make presentation effective assignment

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ASSIGNMENT Business & Technical Writing

SUBMITTED TO: xxxSUBMITTED BY: REHAN IJAZROLL NO: xxxxxxxxxxCLASS: MSc (CS)TOPIC: How To Make Presentation Effective

Abstract

Presentation is the process of presenting the content of a topic to an audience consisting of one or more persons. Presentation is a skill developed through training, practice and experience. It utilizes some visual aid. It is generally a PowerPoint file containing all the slides for a given speech. An effective presentation makes the best use of the relationship between the presenter and the audience. It takes full consideration of the audiences needs in order to capture their interest, develop their understanding, inspire their confidence and achieve the presenters objectives. To make presentation effective we use many strategies.

Table of Contents

ContentsAbstractiiTable of ContentsiiiIntroduction1Six basic steps in making effective presentations1I.Formulating a strategy1II. Developing a flexible and flowing structure1 The audience needs to have the following basic questions answered:1 Some pointers while organizing your ideas:2III. Design and layout2IV. Presentation Style2 Techniques to gain and maintain attention:3 Gaining audience interest:3V. Handling Objections/Questions:3 Guideline for answering questions:3VI. Visual aids4Conclusion:4References5

IntroductionGreat speakers arent born, they are trained. Presentation is a skill as well as an art in which we present our knowledge through verbal, nonverbal communication. To make an effective presentation use following strategies:

Six basic steps in making effective presentations Strategy- formulate a strategy for the specific audience. Structure- develop a flexible and flowing structure. Design- enhances the presentation. Presentation style- how you present is important as what you present. Handling questions- confident and informed responses to questions and challenges. Visual aids- Visuals (or pictures) are a great tool for seeing and understanding.

1. Formulating a strategy

1. It is critical to know the purpose of communication.1. Knowing the audience and expectations of the audience is very important to decide what to present and how to present.1. Tailor your presentation to the audience with respect to their needs, desires, knowledge level and attitude towards the topic.1. Be concrete, specific, practical, and relevant.1. Be clear about your objective.1. Research your topic thoroughly.

1. Developing a flexible and flowing structure

1. Once you know what you want to say, you need to organize all the information in a structured manner.1. Do not assume that the information will speak for itself.1. The audience might interpret the information in different ways based on your organization and presentation.The audience needs to have the following basic questions answered:

1. Why should I pay attention to you when I can think about more interesting things?1. Now that I am listening, why should I care about this issue?1. I agree with the significance of the topic, but how are you justifying your ideas?1. So, now that I am convinced, what do you want from me?

Some pointers while organizing your ideas:

1. Begin by placing your topic in context; you might want to provide an outline or a road map.1. Provide the intended, expected benefits, organization of the presentation, and ground rules.1. Organize the body of the presentation logically.1. When appropriate, plan ways to encourage audience participation.1. Maintain credibility: discuss the pros and cons.1. Conclude on a high note, include an overall summary and proposed actions or options.1. Incorporate visual aids effectively like graphs, pictures, etc.1. Prepare for contingencies practice your presentation.

1. Design and layout

1. Skip the Stock Template1. Keep it simple.1. Limit bullet points.1. Use high quality graphics.1. Size Fonts Appropriately1. Maintain a Strong Contrast Between Text and Background1. Use No More than 5 Colors1. Use Contrasting Text Colors to Draw Attention1. Use Single Images1. Use Visuals to Increase Emotional Appeal1. Freeze the Transitions

1. Presentation Style

1. Presentation style and personal confidence are as important as the actual content of the presentation itself.1. Effective presenters recognize that communication is both intellectual and emotional.1. Organizing your ideas is one important task.1. The other most important task is to gain and maintain the attention of the audience.

Techniques to gain and maintain attention:

1. Convey controlled enthusiasm for your subject.1. Pay attention to posture and tone.1. Your audience will mirror your attitude- radiate confidence without preaching.1. Dont confuse enthusiasm with loudness; try to convey a range of emotions from concern, anticipation, excitement, dismay.

Gaining audience interest:

1. Provide variety and relief if possible.1. Presentations are movies not snapshots; prepare the space for movements.1. Use humor appropriately make it in good taste.1. Eye contact is your primary tool for establishing audience involvement; look at your audience in random rotating order.1. Use gestures naturally; do what is natural to you.

1. Handling Objections/Questions:

1. Avoid asking risky questions that is, questions that may imply lack of knowledge or intelligence.1. Be firm and assertive without being aggressive or defensive.1. Dont let interruptions disrupt your composure.1. Avoid circumstance that require an apology.1. Maintain control of the session.1. If necessary, offer to obtain additional information and follow up.1. Put you element in the questions make them relevant to the audiences personal experience.1. Prepare key questions prior to the presentation; it is difficult to think of good questions on your feet.

Guideline for answering questions:

1. Anticipate questions: think of the ten most likely questions and plan out your answer.1. Try to understand the question properly and then answer it gently.1. Be honest while answering the questions.1. Reinterpret loaded questions: if attacked try to show the similarity to other situations.1. Control interchanges if a member of the audience becomes a heckler try to enlist the audience; if a questioner digresses, try to remind the audience of the goal of the presentation.

1. Visual aidsWords and images can be used throughout your presentation from the introduction to the conclusion. However, remember to restrict their use to key moments in your presentation; an over use of visual aids can be hard to follow.Think about using visual aids at the following times:1. display the title of your presentation;1. define particular technical terms or units;1. indicate a structure to your presentation by listing your main points;1. display an image which encapsulates your theme(s);1. highlight a question you intend answering during the course of your presentation1. highlight new points with an appropriate image or phrase;1. support technical information with clearly displayed data;1. indicate sequence by linking points together;1. offer evidence from your research to support your argument;1. summaries your main points on a slide;1. present your conclusion in a succinct phrase or image;1. display your key references to allow your audience to read more on your topic.

Conclusion:

1. Start preparing early; dont wait until the last few days to prepare.1. Think about your audience.1. Be clear about your purpose.1. Use an effective introduction.1. Use supporting material to support your point.1. Use body language effectively.1. Use visual aids to enhance the message.1. Check the physical environment in advance.1. Finally, cope with stage fright by remembering that it is normal and everyone feels it. References1. Duarte, Nancy. (2009). Using Slides Effectively in Communications. 60 minute recorded presentation by Nancy Duarte available online at: http://www.nwcphp.org/training/hot-topics/2009-hot-topics/using-slides-effectively1. Duarte, Nancy. (2008). Slide:ology The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations. Sebastopol, California. OReilly Media, Inc.1. Duarte, Nancy. (2010). Resonate Present Visual Stories that Transform Audiences. Hoboken, New Jersey. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1. Duarte, Nancy. (Ongoing). Duarte Design Blog: http://blog.duarte.com.1. Tufte, Edward R. (2001). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, Connecticut. Graphics Press.1. Atkinson, Cliff. (Ongoing). Beyond Bullet Points Blog: http://beyondbulletpoints.com1. Goodman, Andy. (2006). Why Bad Presentations Happen to Good Causes. Cause Communications.