hogan's history- jacksonian democracy

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  • Jacksonian Democracy

  • Andrew Jackson

    A war hero and Indian fighter who had defeated the British at New Orleans in

    1814. Known as Old Hickory, after his tough mannerism.

    In 1828 he became the first "common man" president.

    Fun Facts About Andrew Jackson:

    1st President who didnt come aristocracy.

    1st President to have his vice president resign.

    1st President to marry a divorcee.

    Jackson vetoed more bills than the other presidents before him.

    Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. President to ride in a railroad

    train.

    Andrew Jacksons tombstone does not mention that he served as

    the president of the United States.

  • Jackson and Dueling In 1805, Andrew Jackson killed Charles Dickinson in a duel. Captain Joseph Ervin

    made a bet with Jackson over a horse race. Ervin's son-in-law (Dickinson) started

    brawling with Mrs. Jackson and Jackson got involved.

    Later, Dickinson published a statement calling him a "coward" and a "worthless

    scoundrel." Jackson wanted to end this fight so he challenged Dickinson to a duel and

    they chose guns as their weapons. Dickinson took the first shot and destroyed two of

    Jackson's ribs. Jackson fired and hit him below the ribs. Dickinson cried in pain and

    eventually bled to death while Jackson walked away. Jackson's wound never healed

    properly and the bullet was never taken out. This caused him pain for his last thirty-nine

    years of life.

  • Election of 1824

    Sectional differences over beliefs and policies were part of the election of 1824.

    Henry Clay of Kentucky favored a protective tariff and nationwide

    internal improvements.

    Andrew Jackson of Tennessee did not discuss specific issues. Instead, he

    ran on his heroism at the Battle of New Orleans.

    John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts wanted internal improvements.

    William Crawford of Georgia ran on the principle of states rights.

    Henry Clay Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams William Crawford

  • The Corrupt Bargain

    After the votes were counted in the U.S. presidential election of 1824, no

    candidate had received a majority of the Presidential Electoral votes, thereby

    putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives.

    To the surprise of many, the House elected John Quincy Adams over rival

    Andrew Jackson. It was widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the

    House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then made Clay his

    Secretary of State. Supporters denounced this as a "corrupt bargain."

  • Election of 1828

    John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson were the presidential candidates

    again in the election of 1828. Jackson selected another southerner, John C.

    Calhoun of South Carolina as his running mate. Andrew Jackson seemed like

    the unbeatable candidate.

    Jackson beat Adams 647,292 to 507,730 in the popular vote and 178 to 83

    with the electoral vote. Many voters who supported him were rural and small-

    town men who thought Jackson would represent their interests.

  • Mudslinging & Dirty Campaigning

    Andrew Jackson's presidential election in 1828 was considered one of the

    dirtiest campaigns ever witnessed. Never before had there been such an intense

    focus on the candidates' personalities and such little attention paid to the issues.

    Adams claimed that Jackson was not fit to be president.

    Jackson said he was the candidate of the common man and that Adams was an

    out-of-touch aristocrat and reminded voters of the alleged corrupt bargain

    between Adams and Clay in the election of 1824.

  • The Worse of the Political Mudslinging Hits a Raw Nerve

    Andrew Jackson married Rachael Donelson Robards in Nashville, Tennessee

    on January 17, 1794. It was discovered her divorce from her first husband

    wasnt finalized before she and Jackson got married. This caused a lot of gossip

    during the Election of 1828.

    John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay accused Jacksons wife of adultery and

    bigamy hurting Mrs. Jackson with their cruel accusations. Unfortunately,

    victory turned to sadness when two weeks after Jacksons victory, his wife

    Rachel died of a heart attack. Jackson blamed Adams and Clay for the death

    of his wife.

  • Spoils System

    The practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty and support.

    Jackson replaced large numbers of government employees with his own

    supporters. He believed that opening government offices to ordinary

    citizens increased democracy

  • Return of the Two-Party System

    Political system in which two opposing parties struggle against one another

    for political power.

  • A New Party Emerges

    The now-famous Democratic donkey was first associated with Democrat

    Andrew Jackson's 1828 presidential campaign. His opponents called him

    a jackass (a donkey), and Jackson decided to use the image of the strong-

    willed animal on his campaign posters. Later, cartoonist Thomas Nast

    used the Democratic donkey in newspaper cartoons and made the symbol

    famous.

    Andrew Jacksons political party which broke

    from the Jeffersonian Republican Party.

  • Jacksons Interpretation of the Constitution

    Jackson had a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

    Jackson believed the president should have more power and say than

    Congress and believed that the federal government should be restricted to

    only those powers the Constitution specifically gave it.

    Jacksons enemies accused Jackson of acting more like a king than a

    president.

  • Whigs

    Political party which opposed Andrew Jacksons political policies. They chose

    this name because it was the name of the British party that opposed King

    George III during the Revolutionary War. This was the view they held of

    Andrew Jackson

  • Universal (White Male) Suffrage

    Jackson and his followers belief that all white men should be free to vote,

    not just those who owned property.

  • First Assassination Attempt on a President

    On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first

    attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States

    occurred just outside the United States Capitol. When

    Jackson was leaving through the East Portico after

    the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren

    R. Davis.

    Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house painter

    from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which

    misfired. Lawrence pulled out a second pistol, which

    also misfired. Historians believe the humid weather

    contributed to the double misfiring. Lawrence was

    restrained, and legend says that Jackson attacked

    Lawrence with his cane. Others present, including

    David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.

    Afterwards, due to public curiosity concerning the

    double misfires, the pistols were tested and retested.

    Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed

    that Jackson had been protected by the same

    Providence that they believed also protected their

    young nation.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-aopKmA6VIs

  • Indian Removal Act of 1830- The Civilized Nations

    The Civilized Tribes consisted of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws,

    Chickasaws, and Seminoles.

    Called civilized because many accepted White laws, built farms, schools,

    and adopted a written language.

    The five civilized tribes - the Cherokee,

    Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole.

    Sequoyah created a written alphabet for the

    Cherokee language. This was generally perceived as

    a way of protecting lands and sovereignty, but the

    greed of land-hungry Americans farmers seeking

    their land was too overwhelming.

  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    In 1830 Jackson pushed through Congress the Indian Removal Act in 1830,

    which would force Indians to leave their homes and go west.

    The Indians petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to keep their land (Worcester

    v. Georgia).

    The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Indians, but President Jackson refused

    to help the Cherokee in north Georgia and the western Carolinas and said,

    Let the Court support its decision." The Supreme Court was powerless to

    protect the Indians against land-hungry farmers.

    Members of the Cherokee Nation argued in this petition to Congress that they had not ceded the right to their ancestral lands. They urged

    the Government to uphold its treaties and stop plans for their removal.

  • Tariff

    A tariff is a tax on an imported good. Therefore for each unit of a good

    that is imported into a country the tariff increases the price of that good

    by however much the tariff is.

  • Why Southerners Hated Tariffs

    (Wanted Free-Trade)

  • Nullification Crisis of 1832

    The economy of South Carolina was weakening throughout the early 1800s.

    Many people blamed the nations tariffs for this situation. John C. Calhoun,

    the vice president, was torn between following the countrys policies and

    helping his fellow South Carolinians.

    John C. Calhoun believed that tariffs were harming southern markets and led

    the state of South Carolina in protest against tariffs. He proposed the idea of

    nul