highway design handbook for older drivers and pedestrians
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Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-103 May, 2001 U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Research, Development, and Technology Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101-2296
I.Intersections (At-Grade) II. Interchanges (Grade Separation) III. Roadway Curvature and Passing Zones IV. Construction/Work Zones V. Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (Passive)Rationale and Supporting Evidence:
I. Intersections (At-Grade) II. Interchanges (Grade Separation) III. Roadway Curvature and Passing Zones IV. Construction/Work Zones V. Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (Passive) Glossary References Index
FOREWORD The proportion of the population over age 65 is growing significantly. Older road users can be expected
to have problems driving and as pedestrians, given the known changes in their perceptual, cognitive, and psychomotor performances, presenting many challenges to transportation engineers, who must ensure system safety while increasing operational efficiency. This Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians provides practitioners with a practical information source that links older road user characteristics to highway design, operational, and traffic engineering recommendations by addressing specific roadway features. This Handbook supplements existing standards and guidelines in the areas of highway geometry, operations, and traffic control devices. The information in this Handbook should be of interest to highway designers, traffic engineers, and highway safety specialists involved in the design and operation of highway facilities. In addition, this Handbook will be of interest to researchers concerned with issues of older road user safety and mobility. Copies of this report can be obtained through the FHWA Research and Technology Report Center, 9701 Philadelphia Court, Unit Q, Lanham, Maryland 20706, telephone: (301) 577-0906, fax: (301) 5771421, or the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia, 22161, telephone: (703) 487-4650, fax: (703) 321-8547. Michael F. Trentacoste Director, Office of Safety Research and Development
NOTICE This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the object of this document.
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Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. FHWA-RD-01-103 4. Title and Subtitle HIGHWAY DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR OLDER DRIVERS AND PEDESTRIANS 7. Author(s) Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Byington, S., and Harkey, D. 5. Report Date May 2001 6. Performing Organization Code 1495 8. Performing Organization Report No. 1495/FR 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) NCP. No. 3A6a-0042 The Scientex Corporation th Street, N. #300 2000 14 Arlington, VA 22201 11. Contract or Grant No. DTFH61-97-C-00050 TransAnalytics, LLC 1722 Sumneytown Pike, Box 328 Kulpsville, PA 19443 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D Federal Highway Administration 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101-2296 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report Sept. 1997 - May 2001 14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes COTR: Joseph Moyer, HRDS-07; Elizabeth Alicandri, HSA-20; Kelley Pecheux, HRDS-07/SAIC
16. Abstract This project updated, revised, and expanded the scope of the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by FHWA in 1998. The resulting document incorporates new research findings and technical developments; extensive feedback from state, county, and municipal engineers who reviewed and applied recommendations from the earlier version of the Handbook; and recommendations with supporting background material for aspects of modern roundabouts and highway-rail grade crossings, two elements which were not covered in the 1998 publication. Recommendations geared to use of highway facilities by pedestrians also receive greater emphasis. Guidance on how and when to implement the included recommendations has been added, as well as codes which indicate at a glance the relationship of each recommendation with standard design manuals including the MUTCD and the AASHTO Green Book. Development of the updated Handbook was complemented in this project by a technology transfer initiative to make practitioners aware of the Handbook and assist in applying its recommendations. This included the development of a condensed document,Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians (FHWA-RD-01- 051); plus printed and electronic materials supporting the conduct of practitioner workshops throughout the U.S. in the 1999-2001 period. All research products developed under this contract are designed to provide practical guidance to engineers to accommodate the needs and functional limitations of an aging population of road users. Included recommendations are directed toward new construction, reconstruction, scheduled maintenance, and 'spot treatments' to ameliorate demonstrated safety problems, emphasizing countermeasures with modest additional cost during installation and the potential for cost savings over the life cycle. 17. Key Words Safety, Highway Design, Highway Operations, Driver Age, Driver Performance, Human Factors, Vision, Attention, Perception, Cognition, Memory, Physical Ability, Risk Perception, Hazard Perception. 19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified back to top Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized Approximate Conversions to SI Units Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol 18. Distribution Statement No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified
21. No. of Pages 362
Length in ft yd mi inches feet yards miles 25.4 0.305 0.914 1.61 Area in2 ft2 yd2 ac mi2 square inches square feet square yards acres square miles 645.2 0.093 0.836 0.405 2.59 Volume fl oz gal ft3 yd3 fluid ounces gallons cubic feet cubic yards 29.57 3.785 0.028 0.765 Mass oz lb T ounces pounds short tons (2000 lbs) 28.35 0.454 0.907 Temperature (exact) F Fahrenheit temperature 5(F-32)/9 or (F-32)/1.8 Illumination fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx Celsius temperature C grams kilograms megagrams g kg Mg milliliters liters cubic meters cubic meters ml l m3 m3 square millimeters square meters square meters hectares square kilometers mm2 m2 m2 ha km2 millimeters meters meters kilometers mm m m km
Force and Pressure or Stress lbf psi pound-force pound-force per square inch 4.45 6.89 newtons kilopascals N kPa
back to top ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The quality and usefulness of the Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians is a direct result of the many highway engineering practitioners and researchers who provided their comments and criticisms to the authors of this document. Beginning with responses to a detailed, twopart survey conducted early in Handbook development, 94 practitioners contacted through 5 national committees identified the most important content for this resource and how it should be organized and presented for maximum accessibility by its intended users. Participating committees in this user requirements analysis included the American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Subcommittee on Design; the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (NCUTCD); the AASHTO Standing Committee on Highway Traffic Safety; the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Geometric Design (A2A02); and the TRB Committee on the Operational Effects of Geometrics (A3A08). Following development of a draft document, a review panel composed of practicing engineers was asked to apply draft recommendations for one or more design elements from the Handbook in case studies involving real-world engineering problems, and to identify needed changes in the information presented in the Handbook. This panel was formed through the active support of three key committee chairmen: Mr. Thomas Warne, AASHTO Subcommittee on Design; Mr. Richard Weaver, AASHTO Subcommittee on Traffic Engineering; and Mr. Ken Kobetsky, National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. The 28 State and local engineers who served on this panel, giving freely of their time and talents, made invaluable contributions to the resulting product--the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by FHWA in 1998. They are acknowledged individually in that document. Concurrent with the update of the 1998 Handbook, a series of practitioner workshops were held throughout the U.S. to increase awareness of this resource and to help educate engineers about the functional limitations of older drivers and pedestrians, and how to accommodate them through design and operational enhancements. These workshops, which provided contact with over 500 State DOT staff in a 3-year period, elicited verbal and written feedback from participants regarding Handbook deficiencies and needed improvements. While it is not feasible to name these participants, it is important to acknowledge their comments as the most powerful influence both in shaping changes to
specific recommendations and in defining the need for, and mann