heutagogy: changing the playing field (icde pre-conference workshop)
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Lisa Marie BlaschkeICDE Pre-Conference Workshop13/10/15Heutagogy: Changing the Playing Field
What is heutagogy?An example of heutagogical designWhy is it set to change the playing field?What do we want to do next?TopicsFolie 2
What is heutagogy (self-determined learning)?
Heutagogy definedHeutagogy is the study of self-determined learning and applies a holistic approach to developing learner capabilities with the learner serving as the major agent in their own learning, which occurs, as a result of personal experience
Stewart Hase & Chris Kenyon (2007, p. 112)
The pedagogical framework I would like to talk to you about today is called heutagogy, also known as self-determined learning. I stumbled upon heutagogy while doing research into social media and reflective learning journals. Along with Siemens & Downes theory of connectivism, Terry Anderson described heutagogy as a network-centric learning theory.Heutagogy was first defined by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, both from Australia, in 2000. This is their definition.Roots in earlier learning theories such as humanism, constructivism, douple-loop learning, and andragogy, which have contributed to the elements of heutagogy.These elements are4
Learners at the center
Active and self-determined in learningReflecting on what is learned and howDeveloping competencies and capabilitiesAssessing own development and progressFor the teaching and learning experience, for the people who are actually paying tuition dollars, they have to be at the center of the experience. In the past, we needed the university to do a lot of the knowledge mediating for us...[now] students can go directly to the source and they don't need the university to play that mediating role. - George Siemens (YouTube interview, October 21, 2013)
Learner-centered learning. Instructors and institutions are no longer at the center. Learners are thus creating a whole new dynamic in education.
Its all about learners being active, self-determined learners. Learners reflecting how they learn in order to better understand their learning processing. Its about learner competency and capability and learner self-assessment in achieving learning goals.
Reference: Siemens, G. (2013). Changing schools, changing knowledge. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR_ziHA_8LY#t=190
Non-linear designs and connections
creative commons image from Daniel Tenerife,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Social_Red.jpg
Paths of learning are not linear, but divergent. Its also about learners learning what they want to learn and making connections with new guides, new gurus, new learning resources, other learners.
Instructors as guides
In this learner-centered framework, the instructor is no longer the sage on the stage a concept not unfamiliar to distance education. Heutagogy is about instructors as guides and facilitators. Instructors provide guidance and resources as needed, working together with the learner to define the learning path (road map).
Institutions as support networks
Institutions provide platforms and support; use their networks to help learners find their individual learning paths and make connections with guides.
Builds on earlier theories and concepts 9HeutagogyAndragogyCapabilityTransformativeLearningSelf-EfficacyHumanismDouble-LoopLearningReflectivePracticeConstructivism
Heutagogy is not new. (This was pointed out to me at the RIDE conference in 2013.) On the contrary, heutagogy has its roots in earlier learning theories and concepts such as humanism (Maslow and Rogers), constructivism (Vygotsky), reflective practice (Schn), douple-loop learning (Argyris and Schn), andragogy (Knowles), transformative learning (Mezirow), capabilities (Stephenson), self-efficacy (Bandurra), all of which have contributed to the fundamental principles of heutagogy.
Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy (PAH) Continuum
The heutagogical approach can be viewed as a progression from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy, with learners likewise progressing in maturity and autonomy (Canning, 2010, see Figure 2). More mature learners require less instructor control and course structure and can be more self-directed in their learning, while less mature learners require more instructor guidance and course scaffolding (Canning & Callan, 2010; Kenyon & Hase, 2010). Cognitive development of learners, a requirement for critical reflection and discourse to occur, could also be integrated into this pyramid, with cognitive development progressing in parallel with learner maturity and autonomy (Mezirow, 1997). 10
Continuum of andragogy?Andragogy (Self-directed)Heutagogy (Self-determined)Single-loop learningDouble-loop learningCompetency developmentCapability developmentLinear design and learning approachNon-linear design and learning approachInstructor-learner directed Learner-directed Getting students to learn (content)Getting students to understand how they learn (process)
(Blaschke, 2012; Garnett , 2013a, 2013b)
One way to think of heutagogy is as a continuum of pedagogy and andragogy. (Fred Garnett has called it the PAH continuum).
There are two schools of thought among heutagogy activists: One is that heutagogy is placed at the end of the PAH continuum and is only practiced by those with high levels of learner autonomy.
References:Blaschke, L. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning.The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71. Retrieved fromhttp://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2087Garnett, F. (2013a). Developing creativity. In S. Hase & C. Kenyon, Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action. Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.Garnett, F. (2013b). The PAH Continuum. Retrieved from: http://heutagogycop.wordpress.com/2013/03/04/the-pah-continuum-pedagogy-andragogy-heutagogy/ 13/10/15
Or inherent to young learners?
Another is that heutagogy can be practiced at any age, and it is a learning theory applicable to all levels of education (but involves unschooling learners).
(The two-year old whose mother wouldnt buy him a Playmobile castle.)
Benefits of heutagogyImproves critical thinking and reflectionIncreases and sustains learner engagement and motivationGives learners more control over learning (learner-centered)Encourages growth and personal empowermentImproves ability of learners to investigate and question ideas and apply knowledge in practical situationsSupports development of independent ideas and self-confidenceMakes learners more capable and able to adapt to new environmentsHelps learners develop teamwork and project management skills(Canning, 2013; Canning & Callan , 2010; Ashton & Elliott, 2008; Ashton & Newman, 2006; Dick , 2013; Kerry, 2013)
Based on research by Canning (2013), Canning & Callan (2010), Ashton & Elliott (2008), Ashton & Newman (2006), Dick (2013), & Kerry (2013) here are some of the benefits of a heutagogical approach (see slide)
Ill let you read through these, but it seems clear that initial results would indicate that a heutagogical approach develops skills in demand by the workforce: critical thinking, reflection, engagement, motivation, personal empowerment, knowledge application, idea evaluation, self-confidence, independence, capability, teamwork, and project management.13
An example of heutagogical design
Which pedagogical framework?
As educators, we need a pedagogical framework from which to work from. At the same time as distance educators, we need pedagogies that align with the technologies that we use.
One of my favorite descriptions of this symbiotic relationship within DE comes from Terry Anderson (2009), where he describes DE as a dance, with pedagogy defining the dance steps and the moves and technology setting the beat and the timing.
For quality distance education, these must be in sync.
Reference:Anderson, T. (2009). The dance of technology and pedagogy in self-paced distance education. AU Space. Retrieved from: http://auspace.athabascau.ca/handle/2149/221015
Knowledge and information aggregationConnectivity, networking, and social rapportContent discovery, sharing, and creation (individual and group)Reflection and creativity (individual and group)
And what I have found even more interesting, and what struck me as I read more about the theory, is the way in which it aligns with many of the affordances of web 2.0 and social media, our new digital world. (show affordances and alignment) In addition, the learners ability to be self-determined in learning is inherent to the system. Technology gives control of learning back to learners.
Youve got connecting, reflecting, ICT- and media literacy, communication, teamwork, evaluation, self-direction all workplace skills that can emerge when pairing heutagogy with social media.
Excerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press): Social medias shared spaces provide a place where students can learn the collaborative process by working on a project from beginning to end, assess their individual strengths and weaknesses against those of peers, and work to improve the latter while completing a task by pooling complementary strengths. Communication and interaction, essential to online teaching and learning, (Conrad, 2013), can be facilitated and enhanced using the affordances of shared spaces and social networking, for example, through p