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  • 1. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture Prof. Hani Hamed Dessoki, M.D.Psychiatry Prof. Psychiatry Chairman of Psychiatry Department Beni Suef University Supervisor of Psychiatry Department El-Fayoum University APA member

2. Agenda Introduction Normal Family Development Characteristics of happy couples Domestic Violence in a Sample of Egyptian Female Psychiatric Patients (Pilot Study) Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture 3. 7%40% 2.5 . 262013-01:21 4. Marriage and Partnership Marriage is a legal, lasting union that is created in a public ritual 5. Normal Family Development Satisfying relationships: balance between giving and getting. There is a high ratio of benefits relative to costs. Critical influences on relationship satisfaction: affection communication child care Conflict resolution seems to be one of the most critical skills associated with family harmony. 6. Understanding Marital Conflicts Marital conflicts combine problems of communication, alienation or some threat to the relationships security which lead to high anxiety and erosion of the marital system. Feelings of neglect, disrespect, unloved, anger, loneliness, abandonment and growing feelings of inadequacy all contribute to the breakdown in the marriage. 7. Cause of Marital Discord: Receiving too little reinforcement from the marriage. Two few needs given marital reinforcement. Marital reinforcement no longer provides satisfaction. New behaviors are not reinforced. One spouse gives more reinforcement than he or she receives. Marriage interferes with extramarital sources of satisfaction. Communication about potential sources of satisfaction is not adequate. Aversive control (nagging, crying, withdrawing, or threatening) predominates over positive reinforcement. 8. Development of Behavior Disorders (cont.) Distressed marriages include fewer rewarding exchanges and more punishing exchanges. Spouses typically reciprocate their partners use of punishment, and a vicious cycle develops. Parents who respond aversively to children are likely to have aversive responses reciprocated. 9. UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY Most important function is socialization Process by which children acquire the beliefs, motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their society 10. UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY The Family as a Social System Parents influence children Children influence behavior of their parents Families are networks of reciprocal relationships Happily married mothers are more likely to have securely attached children Children do best when couples coparent 11. Characteristics of happy couples Characteristics: foundation of affection and friendship "validation sequences ability to resolve disagreements positive sentiment override a 5 to 1(or better) compliment -criticism ratio is optimal as the ratio decreases, marriage satisfaction decreases Amount of conflict relatively unimportant (all relationships have conflict) 12. Distressed couples Engage in a wide range of destructive fighting techniques Personal attacks (name calling) Dredging up the past Losing focus (and the kitchen sink) Negative behaviors Criticism (more common in women) Defensiveness Withdrawal (more common in men) Contempt 13. The Workaholic as Parent Often preoccupied with their own thoughts, mentally absent Always rushing around, irritable, cranky, lacking humor Focused on adult pursuits: colleagues, intellect, trying to earn a living Involvement with the family is on their own terms Child tries to become like the parent in order to win their love and approval Child measures his worth based on what he does, not by who he iscan never meet parents expectations 14. The Workaholicin Love WA usually demand a great deal of their marital partner (understanding, patience, deferral of needs, adjusting) WA tend to avoid confrontation & engage in silent treatment WA may engage in extramarital affairs, particularly with an office-mate WA may develop alcoholism or substance abuse out of unresolved emotional issues & as a coping mechanism to relax, discharge emotional tension 15. Issues that lower the divorce rate: First marriage Higher education (college and above) Married in 20s or 30s (not teens) Not lived with many partners prior to marriage Religious convictions 16. Domestic Violence in a Sample of Egyptian Female Psychiatric Patients (Pilot Study) Mahmoud El Batrawy*, Mostafa Shaheen*, Noha Sabry*, Hani Hamed** * Prof. of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine. Cairo University ** Associate Prof.of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine. Beni-Suef University Abstract Domestic violence is one of the most pervasive of all social problems, Domestic violence for women is violence perpetrated within relationships; this violence is much serious than violence perpetrated by a stranger. The hypothesis of this work is that domestic violence is a general health problem and not present particularly in psychiatric patients, the study aims at studying domestic violence in married female psychiatric patients. Method: Sixty Egyptian married females were included, 20 of them had the I.C.D.-10 diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, 20 with neurotic disorder and 20 control group. All groups were clinically and psychometrically assessed using clinical psychiatric sheet of Kasr El-Aini hospital. All participants were subjected to: Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, Locus of Control Scale, Esyenck Personality Questionnaire (E.P.Q) and a specially designed questionnaire to assess intimacy, and marital abuse or violence. Conclusion: Domestic violence occurring in female psychiatric patients is not higher than normal. In addition, despite abuse, Egyptian wives tend to see their husbands positively. EuropeanPsychiatry Volume 26, n S1 page 1657 (2011 ) 17. Social Symptoms of Marital Conflict Decrease in social activities by one or both. Withdrawal from time spent with the family, opting for time in front of the television, or on the internet. Problems with employment such as a job transfer, increased job responsibilities, tendency to set poor limits for work schedule, frequent job losses, and unemployment Onset of chronic disability in the family Extra-marital affairs Financial problems Forms of abuse, such as domestic violence or addictions. Disturbed child relationships 18. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture 19. 75 . . 262013-01:21 20. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture Many conflicts center on financial issues, parenting styles, sexual intimacy difficulties, and even differences in lifestyles. A couple with marital conflicts may be contemplating divorce, even though they may never have verbalized it.