Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic 9 Guided Notes. · Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic…

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  • Name ____________________________________________ Date __________ Period ______

    Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic Material

    Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material

    Objectives

    Relate Griffiths conclusions to the observations he made during the transformation experiments.

    Summarize the steps involved in Averys transformation experiments, and state the results.

    Evaluate the results of the Hershey and Chase experiment.

    Transformation : Griffiths Experiments

    1928, Frederick Griffith, a bacteriologist, tried to find a vaccine for _________________

    Vaccine

    o Prepared from

    o Purpose

    Virulent

    Transformation

    Griffiths Experiments:

    o R bacteria rough bacteria that did not have an outer capsule

    o S bacteria smooth bacteria had an outer capsule that protected the bacteria

    from the bodys defenses.

    Injected mice with: Result:

    S bacteria

    R bacteria

    Heat-killed S bacteria

    Heat-killed S bacteria & R bacteria

    What useful application is there for humans in regards to bacterial transformation?

    Transformation: Averys Experiments He wanted to determine what molecule was responsible for transformation.

    Enzyme used Result:

    Protein destroying enzyme

    DNA destroying enzyme

    Conclusion:

  • Viral Genes and DNA: DNAs Role Revealed

    Hersheys and Chases Experiments: They wanted to prove that DNA carried genetic

    material.

    Bacteriophage or phage

    Radioactive isotopes can be used to tag a molecule so that you can determine where it goes by tracing the radioactive isotope.

    They tagged the protein coat of the bacteriophage with radioactive sulfur (35S) because proteins contain sulfur, but DNA does not.

    They tagged the DNA of the bacteriophage with radioactive phosphorous (32P) because DNA contains phosphorous, but protein does not.

    They carried out 2 separate experiments.

    Viruss protein coat labeled with (35S) Viruss protein coat labeled with (32P)

    Phage infects E. coli bacteria Phage infects E. coli bacteria

    Bacterial cells were spun to remove the viruss protein coats.

    Bacterial cells were spun to remove the viruss protein coats.

    Result: Result:

    Conclusion: Section 2 The Structure of DNA

    Objectives

    Describe the three components of a nucleotide.

    Develop a model of the structure of a DNA molecule.

    Evaluate the contributions of Chargaff, Franklin, and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crick determine the double-helical structure of DNA.

    Relate the role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA.

    DNA Overview (Video Clip) DNA is made up of subunits called ____________________, each made of 3 parts: a _______,

    a ______________ group, and a ______________base. In DNA, the sugar is _____________.

    Watson and Crick determined that a DNA molecule is a ____________________ two

    strands twisted around each other, like a winding staircase.

    _______________________ are the subunits that make up DNA. Each nucleotide is

    made of three parts: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-

    containing base.

  • The five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides is called _______________________.

    Nucleotides (Video clip) What portion of the ladder do the sugars and phosphate groups of

    a nucleotide form? ____________ The nitrogen bases face each other and bond to form

    what portion of the ladder? __________________

    The nitrogen base in a nucleotide can be either a bulky, _________________________,

    or a smaller, _______________________________.

    Discovering DNAs Structure:

    Chargaffs Observations What is Chargaffs rule, based on his observations? _______________________________

    Wilkins and Franklins Photographs What did the X-ray diffraction photographs suggest about the structure of DNA? ____________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    Watson and Cricks DNA Model Whose ideas did Watson & Crick incorporate into their model of DNA? ____________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________

    Pairing Between Bases

    The strictness of base-pairing results in two strands that contain ___________________

    ____________________________________________

    3 things that determine why the bases pair:

    1.

    2.

    3.

  • Section 3 The Replication of DNA

    Objectives

    Summarize the process of DNA replication.

    Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication.

    Compare the number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.

    Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication

    The process of making a copy of DNA is called ________________________________.

    It occurs during the ________________ (S) phase of the cell cycle, before a cell divides.

    DNA replication occurs in three steps: See page 198 Figure 9.

    o Step 1 _____________________________________________________________

    that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands. The ________

    where the double helix separates are called _______________________________.

    o Step 2 At the replication fork, ___________________________________________

    _______________________. __________________________________________

    to the exposed nitrogen bases, __________________________________________.

    o Step 3 ________________________ that are __________________________ DNA

    molecule.

    (Video clip) DNA Replication

    What is the end result of DNA replication? ___________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________________

    Checking for Errors

    An important feature of DNA replication is that _________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________________

    This proofreading ____________________ in DNA replication to about _____________

    ______________________________________________________________________

    The Rate of Replication See page 200 Figure 10.

    The _____________________ molecules found in __________________ usually have

    ______________________________________________________________________.

    The __________________________________________________________________

    _______________________of the DNA circle.

    In ______________ cells, each chromosome contains __________________________.

    Each human chromosome is ______________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________.

    With multiple replication forks working in concert, _______________________________

    ___________________________________________________.

    Video Clip: Multiple replication forks in eukaryotes reduce the replication time from?

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