Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic 9 Guided Notes. · Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic…

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<ul><li><p>Name ____________________________________________ Date __________ Period ______ </p><p>Guided Notes: Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic Material </p><p>Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material </p><p>Objectives </p><p> Relate Griffiths conclusions to the observations he made during the transformation experiments. </p><p> Summarize the steps involved in Averys transformation experiments, and state the results. </p><p> Evaluate the results of the Hershey and Chase experiment. </p><p>Transformation : Griffiths Experiments </p><p> 1928, Frederick Griffith, a bacteriologist, tried to find a vaccine for _________________ </p><p> Vaccine </p><p>o Prepared from </p><p>o Purpose </p><p> Virulent </p><p> Transformation </p><p> Griffiths Experiments: </p><p>o R bacteria rough bacteria that did not have an outer capsule </p><p>o S bacteria smooth bacteria had an outer capsule that protected the bacteria </p><p>from the bodys defenses. </p><p>Injected mice with: Result: </p><p>S bacteria </p><p>R bacteria </p><p>Heat-killed S bacteria </p><p>Heat-killed S bacteria &amp; R bacteria </p><p>What useful application is there for humans in regards to bacterial transformation? </p><p>Transformation: Averys Experiments He wanted to determine what molecule was responsible for transformation. </p><p>Enzyme used Result: </p><p>Protein destroying enzyme </p><p>DNA destroying enzyme </p><p>Conclusion: </p></li><li><p>Viral Genes and DNA: DNAs Role Revealed </p><p>Hersheys and Chases Experiments: They wanted to prove that DNA carried genetic </p><p>material. </p><p> Bacteriophage or phage </p><p>Radioactive isotopes can be used to tag a molecule so that you can determine where it goes by tracing the radioactive isotope. </p><p> They tagged the protein coat of the bacteriophage with radioactive sulfur (35S) because proteins contain sulfur, but DNA does not. </p><p> They tagged the DNA of the bacteriophage with radioactive phosphorous (32P) because DNA contains phosphorous, but protein does not. </p><p> They carried out 2 separate experiments. </p><p>Viruss protein coat labeled with (35S) Viruss protein coat labeled with (32P) </p><p>Phage infects E. coli bacteria Phage infects E. coli bacteria </p><p>Bacterial cells were spun to remove the viruss protein coats. </p><p>Bacterial cells were spun to remove the viruss protein coats. </p><p>Result: Result: </p><p> Conclusion: Section 2 The Structure of DNA </p><p>Objectives </p><p> Describe the three components of a nucleotide. </p><p> Develop a model of the structure of a DNA molecule. </p><p> Evaluate the contributions of Chargaff, Franklin, and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crick determine the double-helical structure of DNA. </p><p> Relate the role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA. </p><p>DNA Overview (Video Clip) DNA is made up of subunits called ____________________, each made of 3 parts: a _______, </p><p>a ______________ group, and a ______________base. In DNA, the sugar is _____________. </p><p> Watson and Crick determined that a DNA molecule is a ____________________ two </p><p>strands twisted around each other, like a winding staircase. </p><p> _______________________ are the subunits that make up DNA. Each nucleotide is </p><p>made of three parts: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-</p><p>containing base. </p></li><li><p> The five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides is called _______________________. </p><p>Nucleotides (Video clip) What portion of the ladder do the sugars and phosphate groups of </p><p>a nucleotide form? ____________ The nitrogen bases face each other and bond to form </p><p>what portion of the ladder? __________________ </p><p> The nitrogen base in a nucleotide can be either a bulky, _________________________, </p><p>or a smaller, _______________________________. </p><p> Discovering DNAs Structure: </p><p>Chargaffs Observations What is Chargaffs rule, based on his observations? _______________________________ </p><p>Wilkins and Franklins Photographs What did the X-ray diffraction photographs suggest about the structure of DNA? ____________ </p><p>____________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>Watson and Cricks DNA Model Whose ideas did Watson &amp; Crick incorporate into their model of DNA? ____________________ </p><p>____________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>Pairing Between Bases </p><p> The strictness of base-pairing results in two strands that contain ___________________ </p><p>____________________________________________ </p><p> 3 things that determine why the bases pair: </p><p> 1. </p><p> 2. </p><p> 3. </p></li><li><p>Section 3 The Replication of DNA </p><p>Objectives </p><p> Summarize the process of DNA replication. </p><p> Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication. </p><p> Compare the number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA. </p><p>Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication </p><p> The process of making a copy of DNA is called ________________________________. </p><p> It occurs during the ________________ (S) phase of the cell cycle, before a cell divides. </p><p> DNA replication occurs in three steps: See page 198 Figure 9. </p><p>o Step 1 _____________________________________________________________ </p><p>that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands. The ________ </p><p>where the double helix separates are called _______________________________. </p><p>o Step 2 At the replication fork, ___________________________________________ </p><p>_______________________. __________________________________________ </p><p>to the exposed nitrogen bases, __________________________________________. </p><p>o Step 3 ________________________ that are __________________________ DNA </p><p>molecule. </p><p>(Video clip) DNA Replication </p><p>What is the end result of DNA replication? ___________________________________________ </p><p>______________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>Checking for Errors </p><p> An important feature of DNA replication is that _________________________________ </p><p>______________________________________________________________________ </p><p> This proofreading ____________________ in DNA replication to about _____________ </p><p> ______________________________________________________________________ </p><p>The Rate of Replication See page 200 Figure 10. </p><p> The _____________________ molecules found in __________________ usually have </p><p>______________________________________________________________________. </p><p> The __________________________________________________________________ </p><p>_______________________of the DNA circle. </p><p> In ______________ cells, each chromosome contains __________________________. </p><p> Each human chromosome is ______________________________________________ </p><p>_____________________________________________________________________. </p><p> With multiple replication forks working in concert, _______________________________ </p><p>___________________________________________________. </p><p> Video Clip: Multiple replication forks in eukaryotes reduce the replication time from? </p></li></ul>