gonadal histo-morphology and antifertility effects of bonny light crude oil in male rats

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  • 8/13/2019 Gonadal Histo-Morphology and Antifertility Effects of Bonny Light Crude Oil in Male Rats


    Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org

    ISSN 2224-32! "#a$er% ISSN 222&-'3( ")nline%

    *ol.3, No.+!, 2+3


    Gonadal Histo-Morphology and Antifertility Effects of Bonny

    Light Crude Oil in Male Rats

    *ictor A. ischer, /hristie 0. ischer, 1fon A$aso, )ladi$o A. Ashiru

    +. e$art5ent of Anato5y, aculty of Basic 1edical Sciences, 6ni7ersity of /ala8ar, /ala8ar- Nigeria.2. Assisted 9e$roducti7e :echnology "A9:% /entre, 1aryland, ;agos < Nigeria.

    05ail of corres$onding author= 7ictorfischer&2>yahoo.co5


    :he study in7estigated the antifertility effects of ingestion of Bonny ;ight /rude )il "B;/)% at a dose of .&,

    +.& 2.& and 3.&5l?g 8ody weight in adult 5ale rats following oral ad5inistration for @days. :he ani5als were

    sacrificed, the e$ididy5al s$er5atooa e$ressed out and a ho5ogenate 5ade for se5en analysis. :he testes

    were re5o7ed for histological $rocessing. :he s$er5 count was significantly reduced "2+.!C.&D, +'.C.!&,

    +@.2C. and +2.'C.'' 5illion?5l res$ecti7ely% when co5$ared to their corres$onding control grou$s2@.3C+.2D, 2&.&C.D+, 2@.DC2.@', and 2&.@C.&D 5illion?5l% at #E.&. egenerati7e and necrotic changes

    of cells in the se5iniferous tu8ules and interstitiu5 was o8ser7ed in the histology of the testes. B;/) has

    ad7erse effects on 5ale re$roducti7e syste5. :his 5ay i5$ly $ossi8le antifertility for 5ale rats e$osed to

    B;/) ingestion.

    Keyords= Bonny light crude oil, testes, antifertility, 5ale rat

    !"#ntroduction/rude oil is a 5iture of hydrogen 5olecules, which are organic co5$ounds of car8on and hydrogen ato5s that

    5ay include fro5 one to sity car8ons "#etroleu5 Hand8oo, +''@%. It contains trace a5ount of sul$hur

    containing che5icals, such as sulfides, 5erca$tans, thio$henes, and other 5ore co5$le co5$ounds. Although

    the che5ical co5$osition of the crude oil 7aries 8y source, crude oil and $etroleu5 $roducts share certain toiccharacteristics and are toic to 8iological life "Falinson and Holt,+'!D%%. :he oil industry is the 8ac8one of

    the Nigerian econo5y, accounting for o7er 'G of the total foreign echange re7enue. Nigerias 5arer crude

    oil on the international 5aret is the Bonny ;ight /rude )il "B;/)%. It is $referred to others 8ecause of its low

    s$ecific gra7ity and low corrosi7eness to refinery infrastructure. Industrialiation, through e$loitation and

    e$loration of crude oil or total $etroleu5 hydrocar8on ":#H%, has introduced into the ecosyste5 su8stances that

    are $otentially toic to life and en7iron5ent "ede and ag8o, 22%.:he 5agnitude of oil $ollution and da5age occasioned 8y 5ultinational oil co5$anies o$erating in the Niger

    delta region of Nigeria is not only distur8ing 8ut incredi8le "A$ofure et al., 2%. Bioaccu5ulation of crude oil

    in 5arine life $ossess $otential health haards to terrestrial s$ecies "Shore and ou8en, +''4%. :here is a7aila8le

    e7idence suggesting changes in che5ical $ro$erties of soil following conta5ination 8y crude oil "Ifeadi and

    Nwanwo, +'!D%. :he de7astating conseuences of the s$ill of crude oil and its $roducts in the Niger delta

    region with its e7entual haards on 8oth aerial and terrestrial en7irons tanta5ount to an irre7ersi8le chain effect8oth on 8iodi7ersity and hu5an safety "A$ofure et al., 2%.

    1any studies on the toic effects of crude oil of different geological for5ation in la8oratory and non-la8oratory

    ani5als ha7e 8een carried out "#ayne et al., +'!DK +'!3K 9ice et al., +'DD%. 0$ide5iological data and results of

    toicity studies in e$eri5ental ani5als consistently re$ort that there is significant health ris due to $rolonged

    e$osure to $etroleu5 "idia et al., 23K Shee$ers and Bios, +''2%. :he che5ical co5$osition of crude oildiffers widely and these che5icals are ca$a8le of 5i5icing the inherent actions of re$roducti7e hor5ones and

    hence ha7e the a8ility to disru$t the neuro-endocrine syste5 or the functions of the gonads directly "/ol8orn et

    al., +''3%.

    So5e $eo$le "ala8aris, ILaws, )gonis% ingest crude oil for 7arious 5edicinal $ur$osesK as laati7e, anti-

    $oisoning agent, anti-con7ulsion agent, used for treat5ent of arthritis, snae antidote, es$ecially in rural areas

    where the con7entional antidotes are not a7aila8le "ede et al., 22%. Ani5al studies ha7e shown cyto toic

    effects on so5e organs fro5 e$osure to crude oil co5$ounds "idia et al., 23, 0yong et al.,24K 0yong,

    2K han et al., +'''% and gonads contain ra$idly $roliferating cells that are $ro8a8ly susce$ti8le to da5age

    8y #AHs "AS:9, 24%.

    :his research wor was therefore undertaen to in7estigate the histological changes and antifertility effects

    associated with ingestion of B;/) on 5ale wistar rats.

    $" Materials And Methods2.+ Bonny ;ight /rude )il

    :he 8onny light crude oil used for this study was o8tained fro5 Shell #etroleu5 e7elo$5ent /o5$any, #ort

  • 8/13/2019 Gonadal Histo-Morphology and Antifertility Effects of Bonny Light Crude Oil in Male Rats


    Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org

    ISSN 2224-32! "#a$er% ISSN 222&-'3( ")nline%

    *ol.3, No.+!, 2+3


    Harcourt, 9i7ers state with authority fro5 the e$art5ent of #etroleu5 9esources, NN#/, ;agos Nigeria.2.2 0$eri5ental Ani5als

    Sity "@% 5ale al8ino wistar rats o8tained fro5 the ani5al house of the e$art5ent of $har5acology,

    6ni7ersity of /ala8ar were used for this study. :he ani5als whose weight ranged fro5 +& < 2g were

    accli5atied for three "3% wees 8efore the co55ence5ent of the e$eri5ent in the ani5al house of thee$art5ent of Hu5an Anato5y. :he ani5als were housed in well-7entilated cages and e$t under controlled

    en7iron5ental conditions of te5$erature "2&C&Mc%, relati7e hu5idity "&C&G% and +2-hour light?dar cycle. :heani5als were fed with growers 5arsh and ta$ water ad libitum

    2.3 0$eri5ental esign

    :he ani5als were assigned into four "4% $arallel grou$s A, B, /, and consisting of ten "+% e$eri5ental

    ani5als and fi7e "&% control ani5als, the doses used were 8ased on $redeter5ined ;& 7alues o8tained fro5

    $re7ious studies "0yong, 2%. :he e$eri5ental ani5als in grou$s A, B, /, and recei7ed .&, +.&, 2.& and

    3.&5l?g B.F of B;/) res$ecti7ely, the control ani5als in the corres$onding grou$s recei7ed .&, +.&, 2.& and3.&5l?g B.F of nor5al saline res$ecti7ely 8oth 8y oral gastric intu8ation. :he treat5ent was done once a day

    on alternate days for a $eriod of sity "@% days. At the end of the sity "@% days, the ani5als were euthanied

    under chlorofor5 7a$or and sacrificed. :he s$er5atooa was e$ressed out, a ho5ogenate was 5ade and then

    used for se5en analysis. :he testes were surgically re5o7ed, and sus$ended in 8ouins fluid fiation, $re$aratory

    to histological $rocessing.

    :a8le +. 0$eri5ental design

    rou$ No. of :reat5ent with B;/) rou$ No. of :reat5ents with "nor5al% Ani5als

    5l?g 8.w "control% Ani5als saline 5l?g 8.w

    A + .& A & .&

    B + +.& B & +.&

    / + 2.& / & 2.&

    + 3.& & 3.&

    2.4 eter5ination )f S$er5 /ount

    :he s$er5 count was deter5ined using the new i5$ro7ed neu8auers hae5ocyto5eter. :he ho5ogenate "dilute

    se5en% was used. i7e $ri5ary suares were countedK the counting was $erfor5ed with the hel$ of a handcounter.

    2.& Statistical Analysis

    :he results were analyed for statistical significance 8y one way and two-way analysis of 7ariance "AN)*A%.

    All data were e$ressed as 5ean CS01. # 7alues E.& were considered significant.

    %" Obser&ations And Results

    3.+ S$er5 /ount

    :he ta8le 8elow "ta8le 2% show data o8tained fro5 caudal e$ididy5al s$er5 count following oral ad5inistration

    of B;/). :he s$er5 count was significantly reduced in the treated grou$s A, B, /, and K 2+.!C.&D,

    +'.C.!&, +@.2C., +2.'C.'' res$ecti7ely when co5$ared with their corres$onding control grou$sK

    2@.3C+.2D, 2&.&C.D+, 2@.DC2.@' and 2&.@C.&D res$ecti7ely at a $ro8a8ility le7el of #E.&. :he reduction

    in the nu58er of s$er5 cells was also seen to 8e dose de$endent.

    :a8le 2. 0ffect of B;/) treat5ent on s$er5 count"+ %

    rou$ /ontrol :reated

    A 2@.3C+.2D 2+.!C.&D

    B 2&.&C.D+ +'.C.!&

    / 2@.DC2.@' +@.2C.

    2&.@C.&D +2.'C.''

    Values are expressed as MeanSEM, *=significant at P0.05 s. c!ntr!l

    3.2 Histology )f :he :estes

    :he cellular architecture and integrity of the testes were ea5ined in this study, results in the control grou$s

    "shown in 5icrogra$hs +, 3, & and D%, re7ealed se7eral layers of s$er5atogenic cells such as $ri5ary

    s$er5atocytes, s$er5atids, s$er5atooa and sertoli cells.)n the other hand, testes of treated rats "5icrogra$hs 2, 4, @ and !% showed 5ini5al to 5ared disintegration of

  • 8/13/2019 Gonadal Histo-Morphology and Antifertility Effects of Bonny Light Crude Oil in Male Rats


    Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org

    ISSN 2224-32! "#a$er% ISSN 222&-'3( ")nline%

    *ol.3, No.+!, 2+3


    the 8asic cellular outline and histology of the se5iniferous tu8ules.:he testes of the treated grou$ A ani5als showed si5ilar features with the control 8ut fewer s$er5atids in the

    se5iniferous tu8ules. :he se5iniferous tu8ules of treated grou$ B rats showed less interstitiu5 and interstitial

    cells "of leydig%, sertoli cells