glossary of sheep spinning terms and wool info

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RRabbit hair Used as a component in blends for wool weaving yarns, as a substitute for vicuna to give a soft handle in the fabric. Race - Narrow channel along which water flows for irrigation. - Narrow pen along which sheep can walk in single file or can be held tightly. Race board Part of a loom in from of the reed and below the warp yarns over which the shuttle or rapier passes. Raddle Coloured chalk used to temporarily mark bales or sheep. Also placed in a harness on a vasectomised ram to detect which ewes are on heat. Radiant Panel Test Laboratory testing device for measuring the critical radiant flux (energy) required to ignite a carpet when exposed to a flaming ignition source. Raddle Paint or crayon strapped to a rams chest to mark the ewes he mates with. It must be a scourable compound. A sheep that is marked in this way is said to be raddled. The Cumbrian term is ruddy. Raddle harness Harness carried by a ram to hold a raddle stick on the brisket to identified ewes that have been served. Ragg Coarse wool fibre used in rugged applications such as gloves and hiking socks. Raised board The shearing board is raised above the level of the rest of the floor of the shearing shed by around 1 metre. A raised board enables the shed hands to collect the shorn fleeces without excessive bending. Doors lead to the catching pen and there are chutes through which the shorn sheep are pushed. Raising (or Napping) Process applied to heavy woollen fabric to raise fibres out of the body of the cloth by toothed rollers to form a fluffy surface, or nap. Rake An array of toothed bars which move in a cyclic path to gentling move a floating layer of wool across the surface of a scouring bowl. (See Harrows, Appendix 8) Ram Mature male sheep that has not been castrated. Also called a tup in UK and a buck in USA. A flock ram is a nonpedigree ram used in a commercial flock while a stud ram is a pedigree (registered) ram. Ram effect The ram effect is when non-cycling ewes are stimulated to ovulate by the sudden introduction of a ram or "teaser." Rams produce a chemical substance called a pheromone, the smell of which stimulates the onset of oestrus. When ewes and rams are in constant contact (sight or smell), the pheromones are much less effective at inducing oestrus. Ram harness A device strapped onto the shoulder area of the ram to monitor joining activity in a flock, to draft ewes into early and late lambing groups, or to establish if an individual ram is working. It incorporates a coloured crayon held against the brisket of the ram which leaves a mark on the rump of the recipient, thereby indicating whether a ewe has been serviced by a ram. Ram stag Male sheep castrated after maturity. Rambouillet Large-bodied Merino sheep common in USA, developed in France from animals imported from Spain in 1786. It is a hardy sheep producing good mutton and fine quality wool. All Merino type sheep in USA are Rambouillet or Rambouillet cross (eg, Targee, Columbia, Polypay). There are no Rambouillet sheep in New Zealand and none have entered Australia in recent years. Random mating Mating system where all ewes have the same chance of being mated to any ram used. Rangy Very long body, as opposed to a compact body. AgResearch 2012


THE EWENIQUE GLOSSARY OF SHEEP & WOOL TERMSRapier Metal rod for carrying the weft yarn across a high speed weaving loom. The rapier may be a rigid rod, a telescopic rod or a flexible ribbon. A rapier loom may have a single rapier, or two rapiers operating in unison from opposite sides of the machine. (See Weft Insertion, Loom) Rate of genetic improvement This depends on: 1. Number of traits being selected at one time; 2. Heritability of the traits 3. Genetic correlations between the traits selected 4. Selection differentials 5. General interval in the flock. The rate of improvement is usually expressed per year. Ratine Originally a thick woollen fabric with a curled nap. Now applied to a fabric made from a range of fibres and which has a rough surface. Raw wool A broad term which includes greasy wool or wool which has been scoured, carbonised, washed or solvent degreased; scoured skin wools; washed skin wools; and slipe wools. It consists of wool fibre together with variable amounts of vegetable matter and extraneous alkali insoluble impurities, mineral matter, wool waxes, suint and moisture. Raw wool has not been through a yarn or felt-making process. Reactive dye Class of dye widely used on wool and other protein fibres (see Appendix 30) Receipt date Date on which a farm consignment of wool arrives at a brokers store. Receiving yard The very large yard which are first driven into when brought to the sheep yards. Recessive genes Recessive genes only affect the phenotype when present in a homozygous condition. Hence the recessive gene must be received from both parents before the recessive phenotype will be observed. Reclassing In-store pre-sale classing of a grower's fleece wool clip into lines within the same clip. The resulting main lines are offered for sale under the grower's own brand. The wool will not have been carefully sorted according to type at shearing time. Wool brokers charge for this service. Reclothe Replace the worn or damaged clothing (wire) on rollers of a carding machine with new clothing. Recombing Combing of top slivers after top dyeing. Recore test Measurements made in accordance with the same IWTO Specification as that used for the original test, on a further core sample of raw wool. This sample is drawn from a lot for which the test result is in doubt. Such sample material must be obtained by re-sampling bales in accordance with current sampling standards or regulations. The recore test result must be adjusted for any declared or observed change in the net greasy mass of the wool. Recovered wool Wool recovered from rags and used in cheaper woollen goods. There are two types: (1) Shoddy is the product from knitted and loosely woven products; (2) mungo is the product of tightly woven products. Rectilinear comb (or Continental comb, French comb) The arrangement of the pins on this comb are in straight lines rather than in a circular arrangement, as for the nowobsolete Noble comb. Also called the Heilmann comb after its inventor. (See Combing, Noble comb, Appendix 12) Recycled pack HDPE (high density polyethylene) wool pack which has been repaired in accordance with the Code of Practice for Recycled Packs. Red Book This publication contains full specifications of the current IWTO Test Methods. (See IWTO) Red eye A wether. AgResearch 2012


THE EWENIQUE GLOSSARY OF SHEEP & WOOL TERMSReed Series of closely-spaced, parallel wires in a frame that is used for (1) spacing the warp threads in a loom, (2) guiding the shuttle or rapier during weft insertion, (3) beating up the weft against the fell. The space between two adjacent wire is called a dent; a warp yarn is drawn through this space. (See Weaving, Appendix 16) Reel See Winch Regain (or Moisture regain, Moisture content) Amount of moisture in wool fibres, expressed as a percentage of the clean oven dry weight. Standard regain is brought about when wool comes to equilibrium with air at 20C and 65% relative humidity. Most wool is traded on the basis of its mass at regains specified by IWTO Regulations. Processed wool is adjusted to a particular regain according to national and international agreements (eg. 18.25% for dry combed tops and 16 or 17% regain for scoured wool). Registered laboratory See Accreditation Registered Sampler and Weigher Employee of an accredited representative who has been trained in the weighing, sampling and repacking of wools to the satisfaction of the test house and whose signature is entered on each sampling report. Regurgitation The movement of undigested fibrous feed from the sheeps rumen to the mouth for further chewing. Reissued certificate Wool test certificate which is reissued to take into account one or more of the following factors: - correction of documentary or testing errors. - rebrand or change in identifying marks. - recalculation after drawing of sample which may not exceed 1% of total weight of the tested lot. - revised detail of sale offering or reoffering. - repacking under test house supervision. - replacement of lost or damaged certificate after proof of entitlement. Reject bales A lot remove from the sale because bales are unevenly classed or subject to untrue representation. Relative humidity Amount of water vapour in the air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that the air could hold at the given temperature. It is an important factor in processing wool because wool absorbs and releases atmospheric moisture constantly. (See Regain) Relaxation shrinkage Shrinkage of a fabric occurring when the stretching caused by stresses imposed on the fibres and yarns during processing disappear. It occurs under moist conditions when the fabric is not restrained. Re-offered lot Previously passed in' lot, which is put up for sale again in a subsequent auction catalogue. Repeatibility Statistical measure of the consistency between measurements or appraisals of the same sample. Replacements Sheep acquired to make up the number in a flock to the required level. Replacement rate Rate at which ewes are replaced in a flock. Repellancy Ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining. Reprocessed wool Wool that has been spun, woven, knitted, or felted into a wool fabric but has not been utilised by consumers (eg. tailors cutting). It is then reprocessed into a fibrous state for subsequent reprocessing. Sometimes called reworked or reclaimed wool. (See New wool, Virgin wool)

AgResearch 2012


THE EWENIQUE GLOSSARY OF SHEEP & WOOL TERMSReproduction A group of ewes is generally mated by a single ram, either chosen by the breeder, or has established dominance with other rams i

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