Glosario de términos Inglés-Español CLIL

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Glosario de trminos necesarios para el desarrollo de las asignaturas CLIL

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<ul><li><p>Glossary of Terms. </p><p>Accuracy Using the target language (especially its grammar and pronunciation) without error. See Fluency. </p><p>Acquisition The process by which a child acquires its mother tongue, i.e., unconsciously and without rules. Contrasted with learning a foreign language. </p><p>Active Skills Speaking and writing as opposed to listening and reading (the passive skills). Also called productive skills. </p><p>Analysis Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organisational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organisation principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require and understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. (From: Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Bloom, 1956). </p><p>Authentic Materials </p><p>Materials which are produced for use in the real world and not for language teaching. These materials are then adapted for use in language teaching. See REALIA. </p><p>Behavioural Environment </p><p>This is an important element of what Lewin calls life space, within which there may be locomotion towards a situation which satisfies a need. What this situation is depends upon the individuals perception of his environment and how it can meet his needs. The behavioural environment on which this situation depends is the interrelationships among past achievement, momentary goals, social atmosphere and individuality. (Rivers, 1984) </p><p>Behaviourism A psychological theory associated with B.F. Skinner. The basis of the theory is that learning is a process of habit formation. Students give a response to a stimulus or cue, and this response must then be re-enforced and rewarded. See also DRILL. </p><p>Common Core Those features of English found in all, or nearly all varieties. Common Core English </p><p>The English necessary for social communication, on which most course-books other than those concerned with English for Specific Purposes are based. See Communicative Approach. </p><p>Communicative Approach </p><p>The communicative approach sees language as a tool and recognises that we do things with English. It is therefore, divisible according to what we need to do with the language whilst recognising that there is a common core. (See COMMON CORE). In general, the communicative approach to language teaching can be seen to embrace four separate but related activities: needs analysis, syllabus design, methodology and materials development. </p><p>Communicative Competence </p><p>The ability to transmit and receive meaningful information. A newer concept of communicative competence looks at language rather as a social phenomenon- it still includes the idea of grammatical competence (the how), but puts this in a broader framework, so that the proficient language user knows not only how to use the language, but, to quote (Hymes 1970) he knows when and when not to speak, what to talk about, with whom, when, where, and in what manner. </p><p>Competence is a mentalistic notion used initially by Noam Chomsky, to indicate a system of internalised rules first mastered by a child in his/her acquisition of language. </p><p>Curriculum Course of study, embracing all subjects, at an educational institution, or within a national educational system. </p><p>Deductive Approach </p><p>In a deductive approach, the rules, patterns, or generalisations are presented to the student, and then he or she is given ample opportunity to practise the new feature of grammar. Considered to be an effective method of presenting irregular patterns or exceptions to general patterns. This approach contrasts strongly with an inductive approach where language is presented in such a way that the student can discover for him or herself how it works. See Inductive Approach. </p><p>Direct Method An approach to the teaching of a foreign language characterised by emphasis on presenting words and sentences to the student in ways that will show their meaning without translation or grammatical analysis. See Deductive Approach. </p><p>Drill An intensive exercise designed to give students repetitive practice in an item to be learned. Drills are usually spoken. </p><p>EAP English for Academic Purposes </p></li><li><p>ECP English for Commercial Purposes EFL English as a Foreign Language EGP English for General Purposes EIP English for Industrial Purposes ELT English Language teaching EOP English for Occupational Purposes EPP English for Professional Purposes ESL English as a Second Language ESOL English for Speakers of Other Languages ESP English for Specific Purposes / English for Social Purposes EST English for Science and Technology Evaluation Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose. The </p><p>judgements are to be based on definite criteria. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all of the other categories in the cognitive domain (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis), plus conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria. (From: Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Bloom, 1956). </p><p>Fluency Using the target language primarily to put across a message rather than to demonstrate knowledge of the rules. See also Accuracy. </p><p>Function The use to which a piece of language is put in a social context to communicate messages of different types. </p><p>Functional English </p><p>Language related to the working of society. </p><p>Grammar The science of the structure of a language and the rules and the principles of its generally accepted use. </p><p>Humanistic Approach </p><p>Approaches to, or activities in, language teaching which emphasize effective factors and interpersonal aspects of the classroom situation. </p><p>Inductive Approach </p><p>In an inductive approach students are given examples of the grammatical structure to be learned. After the examples have been practised, the students are guided in forming a generalisation about the grammatical principle they have been working with. See Deductive Approach. </p><p>Interlanguage As the learner passes from beginner to near-native competence, he formulates grammars which approximate more and more closely to that of the target language. Each of those immediate grammars is referred to as an interlanguage. </p><p>IPA The International Phonetic Alphabet Knowledge Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the </p><p>recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcome in the cognitive domain. (From: Major Categories in the Cognitive Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Bloom, 1956). </p><p>Lexical Pertaining to the vocabulary of the language (the content and function words). Metalanguage Language used to describe the structure of other language; any language whose symbols refer to </p><p>the properties of the symbols of another language. Methodology This system used for the communication of teaching points from teacher to learner(s). Paradigm A set of forms derived from one root or stem which are distinguished one from another. Pedagogy The science / art of teaching. Philology The science and scientific study of language, words and linguistic laws. The term philology was </p><p>practically synonymous with linguistics which has largely superseded it. Phonemic Script A set of symbols for the transcription of spoken language, standardized by the International </p><p>Phonetics Association (IPA). Phonetics The science, study, analysis and classification of the physical properties of sounds, including the </p><p>study of their production, transmission and perception. (Cf acoustic phonetics, articulatory phonetics, experimental phonetics, genemmic phonetics, physiological phonetics.) Many authors use the terms phonetics and phonology indiscriminately and interchangeably. </p><p>Phonology 1 The study of sounds, intonation, rhythm, stress and pauses in the language. (Includes the study of phonetics and phonemics). </p></li><li><p>Phonology 2 The whole sound system of a particular language, e.g. He studied the phonology of English. Realia Real things, which may be used in the classroom as an aid to teaching. R.P. Received pronunciation. The English used by educated native speakers in south-east England. </p><p>Still widely considered accepted pronunciation. There is however a tendency for RP to carry the connotation of high social class and privilege that British Public School pronunciation and RP have had in the past. </p><p>Silent Way An approach to language teaching which minimizes the speaking role of the teacher. Target Language The language being taught or learned. This term is sometimes preferable to foreign language, </p><p>because the language being taught or learned may not be a foreign one. It is sometimes less ambiguous than second language because the target language may be the third or fourth language for a particular individual. A second language may also refer to a non-native language taught or learned for national communication. </p><p>Transfer The extension of a native language habit into the target language with or without the awareness of the learner. When the transferred habit is acceptable in the target language, we have FACILITATION. When the transferred habit is unacceptable in the target language, we have INTERFERENCE, and an extra learning burden is assumed. </p><p>TESOL Teaching English to Speakers of Other Language. An Umbrella term used to cover all other English Language acronyms. </p></li></ul>