Global Trends: Challenges and opportunities
Post on 31-Dec-2015
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONGlobal Trends: Challenges and opportunities. Christian Duncumb British Council. http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-research-englishnext.htm. A world in transition. Society Demography Economy Communications Languages. The educational revolution. Changing needs of society - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Global Trends: Challenges and opportunities
Christian DuncumbBritish Council
A world in transitionSocietyDemographyEconomyCommunicationsLanguages8Review of English in Asia???The educational revolutionChanging needs of societyChanging basic skillsChanging nature of knowledgeSocial cohesion9Review of English in Asia???Higher EducationGlobalisation of universities
International student mobility
Global changeThe growth of English11Review of English in Asia???Which model?What variety of English is regarded as authoritative?Which language skills are most important? (Reading? Speaking? Interpreting?)What is regarded as a suitable level of proficiency?How and where will the language be used?What is the motive for learning?At what age should learning begin?What is the learning environment (classroom only? Family? Media? Community?)What are the appropriate content and materials for the learner?What will be the assessment criteria? What kind of exams?
Graddol 2006: 8212Review of English in Asia???A post-method world?There is no single way of teaching English, no single way of learning it, no single motive for doing so, no single syllabus or textbook, no single way of assessing proficiency and, indeed, no single variety of English which provides the target of learning
Graddol 2006: 82
Global trendsBut, there are some clear trends which have evolved and are emerging:English for Young Learners (EYL)Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)EYLAge at which children start with English is lowering and being introduced with greater compulsion
Idea that it is easier for young children to learn languages
It gives students longer to learn English over their school careers. Critical mass?
Provides a potential transition to CLIL at secondary school and English medium learning later
16BC YL global survey?Look at Nunan asia-pacific for some examples from the regionEYL dangersNeeds specialist teachers who understand child development and are good at English. There can be a lack of such teachers
Expansion must be met with corresponding changes elsewhere in the curriculum
Will result in a very mixed abilities entering secondary school
Children need to be motivated for 10 years or more
Failure at the early stage might have profound implications later
So, the expansion in TEYL signals a potentially major shift in ELT that needs to be taken seriously (Cameron 2003: 106)17Also Camerons idea that the continuing expansion of teaching English to children at primary school does not, on its own, bring automatic improvementAlso, YLs need to be motivated for 10 years or moreCameron agrees with Graddol that the expansion to primary schools is a major challenge and not a minor change that can be left to YL experts, but a shift that will have knock-on effects for the rest of ELT, particularly secondary level teaching and teacher educationThe worst case scenario of all will be that an expansion of TEYL leads to more pupils who are disenchanted with learning a foreign languageCLILCLIL is different focus on both content and language learning.
Not the same as English medium education
Combining language and content can help give more space to language to achieve critical mass
Can be seen as the ultimate communicative methodology and fits in with global trends
Growth has dangers
But..Relies on basic language skills having been learned, usually at Primary level
Requires different skills of teachers
Changes the working relationships in schools
Difficult to implement unless the subject teachers have enough language.
Dangers if not done effectively. Students may end up not learning content and language
ELFFewer global interactions in English now involve a native speaker.
New target models the fluent bilingual speaker
Search for a lingua franca core
20Look at Sandra McCarthy bookJenkins work on PhonologyBC research this year.ELFThe th sounds as in thin and this
The contrast between long and short vowel sounds
Weak forms such as the words to, of and from
Idiomatic expressionsELFChange in materials and syllabus content
Change in expectations intelligibility not native-speaker accuracy
The death of the native-speaker?
The English escalator
Increase in English-medium university courses
School-leavers need higher English proficiency
English increasingly used to teach curriculum at secondary school
English introduced earlier and earlier at Primary schoolExpected proficiency increasesAgeFromto681012A1 (IELTS 2.0)14A2 (IELTS 3.0)16B1 (IELTS 4.0)A1 (IELTS 2.0)A2 (IELTS 3.0)B1 (IELTS 4.0)B2 (IELTS 5.5)C1 (IELTS 6.5)C2 (IELTS 7.0)
Some possible long-term implications of trendsTeachers working with ever younger learners
The recent growth of English medium-courses at Universities will move down to secondary school.
Increasing use of CLIL at secondary school
Ultimately English teachers may lose their subject
English is increasingly seen as a basic skill
Increasing irrelevance of native speakers and the doom of monolingualism
There are dangers in not keeping up but also dangers in not implementing effectively 25The last two points are the key ones The key to understanding the impact of global English probably lies in how well and how strategically its implementation is managed in each country. There is scope for great success but also for great disaster.
Graddol 2006: 120For Russia?What variety of English is regarded as authoritative?Which language skills are most important? (Reading? Speaking? Interpreting?)What is regarded as a suitable level of proficiency?How and where will the language be used?Is the motive for learning largely instrumental or also integrative?At what age should learning begin?What is the learning environment (classroom only? Family? Media? Community?)What are the appropriate content and materials for the learner?What will be the assessment criteria? What kind of exams?
Graddol 2006: 8227Review of English in Asia???