Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Any microorganism, plant or animal that has purposely had its genome altered using genetic engineering technology. Traditional Genetic Modification. Also called Selective Breeding - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)Any microorganism, plant or animal that has purposely had its genome altered using genetic engineering technology

  • Traditional Genetic ModificationAlso called Selective BreedingFarmers would always save the best seeds (bigger, sweeter or more resistant to disease, etc) from their crops to plant for next year. As a result each year the farmer got slightly better crops. Change was slight but over many generations the change was significant.

  • For example..Balsas teosinte, a wild grass typically found in Mexico, was modified into drum roll please

  • Modern Corn

  • Transgenic ManipulationOne or more genes are artificially inserted into the DNA of the plants chromosomes.The gene can come from the same type of plant or even another type of organism

  • Bt CropsPlants with the Bt sequence of genes can produce proteins that protect them from various insects such as European corn borer, southwester corn borer, tobacco budworm and Colorado potato beetle.

  • Lets Engineer..Take toxin from BT DNA and combine with a vector (What is a vector?)Short piece of DNA capable of replicating on its own when inside a bacterial cell.Now another gene which will make the plants resistant to a herbicide is added.The vector, which incorporates the Bt gene, is now placed into a bacterium cell.

  • AgrobacteriumCauses disease in plants.Has the ability to transfer a portion of it DNA into plant cellsOnce inside a plant cell, its DNA will be incorporated into the DNA of one of the plants chromosomes.

  • Grow the bacteriumBy adding it to a growth mediumEach time the bacterium divides, so do the vectors within Before the blink of an eye you have millions of copies of the bacterium and of the vector that contains the Bt gene

  • Now for the plant cells.Add small pieces of whatever plant you want to modify (e.g. tomato, corn) to the AgrobacteriaThe DNA of the bacteria enters the plants cells and the cells nucleiThe vectors DNA (which includes the Bt and herbicide resistant gene) becomes integrated with the plant cells DNA

  • Grow the plant cellsBy placing the cells into the growth medium for plantsIn the growth medium, the plant cells multiply and form stems, roots and leaves

  • Here comes the herbicideSpray the plants with a herbicide and ONLY the cells with the herbicide resistant gene survivePlants are transferred to a growth chamber and the plants are allowed to mature

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