Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners

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It is an exciting yet challenging time in education. English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing demographic in U.S. schools today, and most teachers and administrators around the country can expect to find ELLs in their classrooms and schools. Federal and state accountability policies include all students, and they require ELLs to take and pass the same standards-based tests as their English-proficient peers. Schools are also expected to test these learners' English language proficiency each year, and schools are held accountable for ensuring that ELLs make adequate yearly progress in learning English. Unfortunately, to date many teachers and administrators have not received adequate training in how to effectively address the academic, language, literacy, and learning needs of ELLs. Fortunately, this is changing.

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<ul><li><p>Foundations for Teaching English Language LearnersResearch, Theory, Policy, and Practice </p><p>Wayne E. WrightUniversity of Texas, San Antonio</p><p>Caslon PublishingPhiladelphia</p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p>Copyright Caslon, Inc. 2010</p><p>All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of short passages for the purposes of criti-cism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording, or otherwise without prior written permission of the publisher.</p><p>Caslon, Inc. P.O. Box 3248 Philadelphia, PA 19130</p><p>caslonpublishing.com</p><p>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Wright, Wayne E.Foundations for teaching English language learners : research, theory, policy, and practice / Wayne E. Wright. p. cm.ISBN 978-1-934000-01-4 (soft cover)1. English languageStudy and teachingForeign speakers. 2. English languageStudy and teachingTechnological innovations. 3. English languageStudy and teachingTechnological innovations. 4. English languageComputer-assisted instruction. 5. Web-based instruction. I. Title.PE1128.A2W75 2010428.0071dc22 2010006772</p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p>It is an exciting yet challenging time in education. English language learners (ELLs) are the fastest growing demographic in U.S. schools today, and most teachers and administrators around the country can expect to find ELLs in their classrooms and schools. Federal and state accountability policies include all stu-dents, and they require ELLs to take and pass the same standards- based tests as their English- proficient peers. Schools are also expected to test these learners Eng-lish language proficiency each year, and schools are held accountable for ensur-ing that ELLs make adequate yearly progress in learning English. Unfortunately, to date many teachers and administrators have not received adequate training in how to effectively address the academic, language, literacy, and learning needs of ELLs. Fortunately, this is changing.</p><p>An important premise of this book is that all educatorsmainstream elemen-tary and secondary teachers, special education and literacy specialists, admin-istrators, ESL and bilingual educatorsshare responsibility for ELL education. These educators must work together to make important decisions about policies, programs, and practices for ELLs. These decisions must be grounded in a clear un-derstanding of how ELLs learn a second language and how academic content can be taught to maximize learners comprehension. Decisions must also be made with an understanding of the historical and sociocultural contexts in which schools, teachers, students, and their families are situated.</p><p>A Comprehensive Approach Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners was written to provide cur-rent and future educators with a solid foundation from which to make informed decisions regarding ELLs. We take a comprehensive, learner- centered approach to research, theory, policy, and practice. The special features of the book and the companion Web site (indicated by the icon to the left and described later in detail) facilitate prospective teachers and administrators learning about how to educate ELLs in their classes, schools, and communities.</p><p> Learner- Centered. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners begins by looking closely at who ELLs are, emphasizing the diversity encompassed by the label English language learner. We discuss the challenges these learners face in school and outline what educators need to know and be able to do to address each learners needs. Real- life examples of ELLs and teachers in classrooms and schools bring the book to life. Samples of ELL student work included for discussion and analysis give readers practical experience making the kinds of instructional deci-sions they will be called on as teachers to make.</p><p>Research. The practices, strategies, and techniques highlighted throughout this book are firmly grounded in the research. Each chapter provides a survey of what we know from scientific research related to the content of the chapter. These sur-veys include, for example, the findings of two national reviews of the literature on language and literacy instruction for ELLs. Readers look critically at the research, </p><p>iii</p><p>Preface</p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p>iv Preface</p><p>review current controversies in the field, and identify gaps in the research. Activi-ties at the end of chapters and on the companion Web site provide students with opportunities to make research- based decisions about what constitutes effective policies, programs, and practices. Research activities also invite students to con-tribute to further research on practice in ELL education.</p><p>Theory. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners synthesizes theo-ries of second language acquisition, literacy development, and sociocultural per-spectives. Academic language and literacy development are important concerns, and the spectrum of second language and literacy approaches and methods are critically reviewed. Students see how the sociocultural context shapes learning and teaching; they analyze how different theories of language and literacy devel-opment are reflected in policies, programs, and practice. Students are encouraged to develop their own approach to providing effective instruction for ELLs based on the theories and research reviewed and synthesized in the text.</p><p>Policy. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners skillfully links macro language and education policy debates to the decision- making power that educa-tors have within their local domains of authority. Chapters analyze the evolution of federal and state language and education policy for ELLs, review the range of pro-gram models that we find in schools, outline essential components of effective pro-grams, and introduce students to the fundamentals of assessment and account-ability. Special features of the book and companion Web site encourage students to critically review and respond to these policies, and to make decisions about effec-tive programs and accountability systems for ELLs in schools.</p><p>Practice. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners makes connec-tions among theory, research, policy, and practice explicit. Chapters on oral lan-guage, reading, writing, content- area instruction, primary language support, and technology review the relevant research; theories of language; literacy, learning, and policy debates; and describe a range of research- based practices (i.e., ap-proaches, methods, strategies, and techniques). This comprehensive, balanced ap-proach to teaching equips prospective teachers with the knowledge and skills they need to provide equal educational opportunities for their ELLs.</p><p>Special FeaturesFoundations for Teaching English Language Learners introduces special features within the text to structure student learning, teaching, and research. These fea-tures also facilitate professors course preparation and advance the field of ELL education.</p><p>Guiding Questions. Each chapter opens with a series of questions that preview the concepts and practical focus of the chapter. Guiding Questions encourage stu-dents to read with a concrete purpose in mind and to summarize and synthesize the major concepts. Guiding Questions also prepare students to apply what they learn in the chapter to ELL learning and teaching situations. </p><p>Key Terms. Key Terms are listed at the beginning of each chapter, and they offer a powerful way to approach the concepts discussed in the chapter. These terms are highlighted in the text and clearly defined when first used. For quick reference, every Key Term is defined in the Glossary.</p><p>Figures, Tables, and Boxes. Every chapter is supplemented with photographs, summaries, illustrations, demographic data, samples of student work, and resources </p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p> for additional research and practice. This material is organized into figures, tables, and boxes that augment the discussions of issues and current controversies within the field, and prepare prospective teachers to address these issues in schools and classrooms.</p><p>Summaries. Every chapter concludes with a brief Summary of the major concepts ad-dressed in the chapter. Summaries are followed by Discussion Questions, Research Ac-tivities, and Recommended Readings that together ensure that students can respond to the Guiding Questions that open the chapter and apply what they have learned. </p><p>Discussion Questions. When students respond to Discussion Questions, they rein-force their understanding of the material covered in the chapter. These questions also give students opportunities to reflect on and apply chapter content to their own ELL learning and teaching contexts. Discussion Questions can be responded to individually or used to guide group discussions.</p><p>Research Activities. Research Activities offer students the opportunity to conduct classroom- based or school- based research on topics and issues raised in the chapter. Professors can ask students to extend these activities into larger culminating projects and incorporate them into their learning and teaching portfolios.</p><p>Recommended Readings. Each chapter concludes with a list of books and articles recommended by the author. The author has annotated this list with suggestions for the further study of topics introduced in the chapter. </p><p>Glossary. The Glossary provides a quick reference to the vocabulary used in the field and to the Key Terms highlighted in the book.</p><p>Companion Web SiteFoundations for Teaching English Language Learners takes full advantage of the power of the read- write Web with an extensive companion Web site that is included with the purchase of the book. This free Web site is an integral part of the course and is thus a real value for students and professors. The companion Web site icon appears in the left margin of the text to indicate the additional information, resources, and activities available on the Web site. The author and other professors across the country continu-ally post new resources and information about recent developments in research, theory, policy, and practice on the Web site, ensuring that the text is always up- to- date in the rapidly changing field of ELL education.</p><p>Perhaps most important, the companion Web site provides a space where profes-sors can structure interactions and collaborations that go beyond the traditional uni-versity class. Students can participate in discussions about course topics with their own classmates as well as with other students who use the text in classes around the country. Students are also encouraged to contribute to the Foundations for Teaching English Lan-guage Learners Wiki based on their own research in the field, thereby contributing to the development of a national database on teaching ELLs.</p><p>Features of the Companion Web SiteThe companion Web site is organized into sections that align with chapters of the main text. Each section/chapter of the Web site includes the following features that enhance student learning and facilitate professors class preparation.</p><p>Downloadable Files of Figures and Forms. All figures, tables, boxes, and forms found in Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners can be downloaded for easy use. </p><p> Preface v</p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p>vi Preface</p><p>Professors and students may incorporate figures from the text in PowerPoint or other multimedia presentations. Students can also complete and download forms used in assignments for class. Students will use many of these forms in their work as teachers of ELLs in the future.</p><p> On- line Extras. Additional text, boxes, and information are provided for stu-dents and professors who are interested in pursuing a topic in greater detail, and these can be downloaded for easy use. Other on- line extras for students include links to additional resources, video- sharing sites, chapter review activities, an on- line discussion board, wiki- this research activities, and a bonus e- handbook on advocacy. </p><p>Links Cited in the Book. Students and professors can simply click on the link and easily connect with on- line resources cited in the text.</p><p>Links to Additional Resources Relevant to Chapter Topics. This feature takes students and professors beyond works cited in the book with links to full- text briefs, articles, and instructional resources.</p><p>Links to Videos on YouTube or Other Video- Sharing Sites. Students and pro-fessors can view examples of instructional practices described in the book, and they can use the strategies and techniques described in the book to reflect on those practices.</p><p>Chapter Review Activities. Students can use these activities to review concepts presented in the chapter and assess their learning.</p><p> On- Line Discussion Board. The On- Line Discussion Board allows students to post their responses to selected discussion questions for each chapter. Most of these questions ask readers to share their thoughts, ideas, and experiences relevant to the chapter content. Readers can read and respond to answers provided by stu-dents within their class as well as to answers provided by students using this Web site in similar courses in other universities. In this way, students can participate in national conversations about ELL education and gain an appreciation for some of the variation we see across districts, communities, and states.</p><p>Wiki- This Research Activities. One or more of the research activities for each chapter have been posted on a Wiki, ready for students to post their research find-ings and share them with the world. On the Wiki, readers can learn from each other about how ELL education issues play out in areas across the country. Students who add to the Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners Wiki are contribut-ing to the development of a national database on ELL education.</p><p>Bonus e- HandbookProviding Effective Instruction and Advocacy for ELLs. Effective ELL educa-tors often become advocates for ELL students and their families, and the compan-ion Web site includes a downloadable bonus e- Handbook for Practitioners. The e- Handbook begins with a list of characteristics shared by effective ELL programs. The list is a synthesis of major ideas presented in the Foundations for Teaching Eng-lish Language Learners text with additional attention paid to the key elements of advocacy and parental involvement. A detailed discussion of steps that educators can take to advocate on behalf of their ELLs and to involve ELL parents in their childrens education follows. The e- Handbook concludes with a discussion of re-search needs relevant to ELL students and the role teachers can play as action- oriented researchers within their own classrooms.</p><p>&amp;DVORQ,QF$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG</p></li><li><p>Professors Resource RoomThis feature is for professors only. It provides a space for professors to download resources they can use in their cla...</p></li></ul>