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  • ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. (EMRE)ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. (EMRE)Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) Technology

    An Alternative for Liquid Fuel ProductionAn Alternative for Liquid Fuel Production

    Gasification Technology ConferenceGasification Technology ConferenceOctober, 2009

    2009

  • Coal to Liquid Fuels Background

    EMRE Methanol to Gasoline Technology

    MTG and Fischer-Tropsch Comparative Analysis

    EMRE MTG Licensing

  • Options for Coal Liquefaction

    MethanolSynthesis CH3OH

    CO2O2 H2O

    Fischer-Tropsch F-T Crude

    Coal Gasification:Syngas: CO + 2H2

    Indirect

    Di t

    SynthesisCoal

    SyntheticDirect

    Indirect

    DirectLiquefaction

    SyntheticCrude

    Coal Gasification: H2

    Direct

    CO2O2 H2O

    Syngas: H2

  • Options for Coal to Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Fischer

    Gasification MeOHSynthesis MTG

    Fischer-Tropsch

    Synthesis

    Gasification

    Coal

    Refining

    Liquid

    H2

    Direct

    Gasification

    Fuels

    The MTG process converts methanol to gasoline For F-T and Direct Liquefaction conventional oil refining processes convert

    DirectLiquefaction Refining

    For F-T and Direct Liquefaction, conventional oil refining processes convert synthesized hydrocarbons into liquid fuels (diesel, jet fuel, gasoline)

    Including the hydrogen generation for Direct Liquefaction, all routes involve three major process steps

  • Coal to Liquid Fuels Background

    EMRE Methanol to Gasoline Technology

    MTG and Fischer-Tropsch Comparative Analysis

    EMRE MTG Licensing The MTG Advantage

  • ExxonMobil MTG Technology

    MTG synthesis reactions convert Methanol

    Methanol

    into a mixture of C1-C10 hydrocarbonsand free water

    Approximately 90% of hydrocarbon is inthe gasoline boiling range with 87 octane value ((R+M)/2)

    First generation MTG plant operated inNe Zealand from 1985 to 1997 in a gas

    Water

    New Zealand from 1985 to 1997 in a gasto liquids operation

    Gasoline

  • MTG Product Yields & Quality

    MTG Gasoline YieldsMTG Gasoline Yields

    % of

    MTG Gasoline MTG Gasoline Properties/CompositionProperties/Composition

    Octane, RON 92% of HydrocarbonFeed Product

    Fuel Gas 1% 2%

    Octa e, O 9Octane, MON 82(R+M)/2 87

    Paraffins, vol% 53

    LPG 5% 11%

    Gasoline 38% 87%

    Olefins, vol% 12Napthenes, vol% 9Aromatics, vol% 26

    The MTG process predominately produces gasoline and a fraction of LPG

    H2O 56% --Benzene, vol% 0.3Sulfur nil

    The MTG process predominately produces gasoline and a fraction of LPG determined by the desired gasoline vapor pressure

    Gasoline qualities consistent with conventional regular gasoline

  • MTG Gasoline vs. U.S. Conventional Gasoline

    MTG Gasoline is completely compatible with conventional gasoline infrastructure

    MTG Gasoline contains essentially no sulfur and low benzene meets sulfur and benzene limits

    2005Summer 2005Winter MTGGasoline USRegulation

    APIGravity 58.4 61.9 61.8

    A ti (%V l) 27 7 24 7 26 5Aromatics(%Vol) 27.7 24.7 26.5

    Olefins(%Vol) 12 11.6 12.6

    RVP(psi) 8.3 12.12 9

    T50(F) 211.1 199.9 201

    T90(F) 330.7 324.1 320

    S lf (PPM) 106 97 0 30Sulfur(PPM) 106 97 0 30

    Benzene(%Vol) 1.21 115 0.3 1(0.62)

  • EMRE MTG Process

    Pre-heated methanol is fed to a fixed bed reactor system where essentially all of the methanol is converted to hydrocarbon and water

    MTG reactor effluent is separated into gas, raw gasoline and H20

    Raw gasoline is separated into LPG, light gasoline and heavy gasoline

    Heavy gasoline is hydro-treated to reduce durene content

    Heavy and light gasoline are re-combined into finished MTG gasoline

  • EMRE MTG Process Flow Diagram

    Light Gasoline

    MTG Reactor System

    C2- LPGPurge Gas

    FinishedGasolineBlendingBlending

    LPG

    (Multiple)

    Treated

    Methanol

    Treated Gasoline

    Heavy Gasoline

    Stabilized GasolineH O Gasoline

    DeEthanizer

    Stabilizer

    StabilizerSplitter

    HGT Reactor

    RawGasoline

    H2O

  • New Zealand MTG Facility: New Plymouth NZ

    MTGMTGSynGas and SynGas and MeOH GenerationMeOH Generation

    14,500 BPD plant in New Plymouth New Zealand. Plant ownership 75% NZ Government and 25% ExxonMobil.

  • New Zealand Plant Operating Experience

    90

    95 GASOLINE YIELDWT% OF HC Initial Startup: October, 1985> 96% Stream Factor over 7 year period

    95%100%

    ctor

    GASOLINE OCTANE RON

    85

    75%80%85%

    90%95%

    Rx

    Stre

    am F

    ac

    1st Calendar Yr.

    GASOLINE OCTANE, RON

    92

    94

    9670%75%

    0 360 720 1080 1440 1800 2160 2520 2880Elapsed Time, Days

    R

    90

    92

    The New Zealand MTG experience demonstrated MTG to be a robust technology

    1st Calendar Yr.

    Daily gasoline yield on feed and gasoline octane indicated a very consistent process performance

    After start up the unit ran reliably with an on-stream factor greater than 96%

  • Key MTG Features

    Operability Moderate temperatures / pressures

    Gas phase conventional fixed bed reactors Gas phase conventional fixed bed reactors Reactor design allows for on-stream MTG catalyst regeneration and

    replacement Gasification and methanol synthesis are decoupled from gasoline productionGasification and methanol synthesis are decoupled from gasoline production

    Improves on-stream factor vs. direct coupled operation MTG unit sized for calendar day methanol production

    Constructability Parallel reactor design provides reactor size flexibility New Zealand experience demonstrated constructability in remote localsy

  • 2nd Generation MTG Technology

    Second Generation Design based on 10 yearslearnings from New Zealand operation

    Improved heat integrationImproved heat integration

    Improved process efficiency

    Process re-optimized for coal-based methanolp

    Reduced capital costReduced operating cost

    ExxonMobil is the world leader In catalyst development and manufacture

  • JAMG MTG Plant in Shanxi ChinaJAMG MTG plant located in Shanxi Province China is the first SecondGeneration MTG Unit

    The JAMG project is demonstrating the coal to gasoline concept with domestic gasification and methanol synthesis technologies and EMRE MTG

  • JAMG MTG Plant in Shanxi China TheJAMGMTGplanthasacapacityof2,500B/Dandincorporatesthe

    learning'softhe1stgenerationplantinNewZealand

    TheplantstartedupinJune,2009andproducedontestgasoline60p p , p ghoursafterinitialstartup

  • Other MTG Licenses

    DKRW announced in Dec. 2007 the first U.S. CTL plant to utilize MTG in their 15 KBD Medicine Bow, WY Project

    Synthesis Energy Systems in September, 2008 announced their license for MTG Technology for a series of global CTL projects

  • Coal to Liquid Fuels Background

    EMRE Methanol to Gasoline Technology

    MTG and Fischer-Tropsch Comparative Analysis

    EMRE MTG Licensing The MTG Advantage

  • F-T & MTG Comparative Stoichiometry

    SYN GASFISCHER-TROPSCH

    (CO + 2H2) (-C1H2-) + H2O

    Gas & F-T Liquids

    (CO + 2H2) CH3OH (-C1H2-) + H2O

    SYN GAS METHANOLM T G

    Gas & MTG Gasoline

  • F-T & MTG Component Yields

    Components

    FuelGas 6 15 1.1

    FischerTropschCoCatalyst@220C

    FischerTropschFeCatalyst@340C

    MTGComponents

    LPG 6 23 10.0

    Naphtha 19 36

    GASOLINE 88.8

    Distillate/Diesel 22 16

    FuelOil/Wax 46 5/

    Oxygenates 1 5

    F-T yields depend on catalyst, temperature and specific technology

    F-T processes produce a range of hydrocarbons and oxygenates (e.g. alcohols) that require refining processes to convert F-T liquids to conventional fuels

    MTG produces a conventional gasoline and an LPG stream

    Date Sources: Sasol 2004 publication.

    MTG produces a conventional gasoline and an LPG stream

  • 10

    Gasoline vs. Diesel as CTL product

    6

    7

    8

    9

    U.S. fuel demand is projected to be heavily weighted toward gasoline

    Projected U.S. Trans. Fuel Demand (MB/D)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5 heavily weighted toward gasoline even considering efficiency gains and some gas to diesel demand shifting (Source: U.S. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with

    2 .0

    0

    1

    2007 2015 2030

    Pet. Gasoline Bio Gasoline Pet. Diesel Bio Diesel

    Projections to 2030)

    G li Di l P i ($/MBTU)

    1 .0

    1 .5

    Historical Gasoline and Diesel prices have typically provided over $1/BTU

    Gasoline - Diesel Price ($/MBTU)

    0 .0

    0 .5

    1980

    1982

    1984

    1986

    1988

    1990

    1992

    1994

    1996

    1998

    2000

    2002

    2004

    2006

    2008

    have typically provided over $1/BTU additional value for gasoline (Source: U.S. EIA, Refinery Gate prices for Resale; Gasoline @ 5.25 MBTU/BBL, Diesel @ 5.83 MBTU/BBL: Transportation Energy Data Book)

    -0 .5

    19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20

  • 2009 NRC Study:Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal / Biomass*

    Joint Study by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering as part of the America Energy F t P j tFuture Project

    Study Included a comparati