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Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative Learning Karl A. Smith Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota [email protected] http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith W hy the Difference? A Teachers Conference on Best Practices to Engage Girls and Students of Color in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math

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Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative Learning. Karl A. Smith Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota [email protected] http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Why the Difference? A Teachers Conference on Best Practices to Engage Girls and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative LearningKarl A. SmithCivil Engineering, University of [email protected]://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith

    Why the Difference?A Teachers Conference on Best Practices to Engage Girls and Students of Color in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math

    College of St. CatherineSt. Paul, MN June 27-28 2006

  • Lila M. Smith

  • Pedago-pathologiesAmnesia

    Fantasia

    Inertia

    Lee Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late 60s early 70s), Currently President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College Teaching

    Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

  • What do we do about these pathologies? Lee Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration PassionCombined with generative content and the creation of powerful learning communities

    Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.

  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Think-Pair-Share)Individually read the quote To teach is to engage students in learning. . .Underline/Highlight words and/or phrases that stand out for youTurn to the person next to you and talk about words and/or phrases that stood out

  • To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively

    Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Edited by C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1991.

  • Lila M. Smith

  • Pedagogies of Engagement

  • Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning CommunitySuccess Story

    Reflect on and Talk about your Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning Community Success(es)1.Context?2.Structure/Procedure?3.Outcome?

  • Key Features of Cooperative Learning

    Active/InteractiveCooperativePersonal (before professional)Structure (before task)Knee-to-Knee, Eye-to-Eye/Space/FocusChallenging task (worthy of group effort)Students talking through the material (cognitive rehearsal)Learning groups are small (2-5) and assignedHeterogeneousYour own cooperative group

  • Cooperative Learning Task GroupsPerkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's RoundTable: How collaborative conversations createsmart organizations. NY: Wiley.

  • Backdrop Recent ReportsNational Research Council Reports:How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999).How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice (2000).Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment (2001).The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education (2002). Chapter 6 Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn

  • Designing Learning Environments Based on HPL (How People Learn)

  • Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupsFormal Cooperative Learning GroupsCooperative Base GroupsSee Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc)

  • Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).

    Key ConceptsPositive InterdependenceIndividual and Group AccountabilityFace-to-Face Promotive InteractionTeamwork SkillsGroup Processing

  • Individual & Group Accountability?

  • http://clte.asu.edu/active

  • Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology National Science Foundation, 1996Goal B All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry.

    Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student=s experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long learning skills into learning experiences.

  • Tracking Change - Seymour

    "The greatest single challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the problem of whether and how large classes can be infused with more active and interactive learning methods."

    Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the processes of change in US undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.

  • Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupsFormal Cooperative Learning GroupsCooperative Base GroupsSee Cooperative Learning Handout (CL College-804.doc)

  • Book Ends on a Class Session

  • Book Ends on a Class Session

    Advance OrganizerFormulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighbor) -- repeated every 10-12 minutesSession Summary (Minute Paper)What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?What was the muddiest point in this session?

  • Advance OrganizerThe most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him [email protected]

    David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.

  • Quick Thinks Reorder the stepsParaphrase the ideaCorrect the errorSupport a statementSelect the response

    Johnston, S. & Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks: Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative learning and college teaching, 8(1), 2-7.

  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create

    Informal Cooperative Learning GroupIntroductory Pair Discussion of a

    FOCUS QUESTION

    Formulate your response to the question individuallyShare your answer with a partnerListen carefully to your partner's answerWork together to Create a new answer through discussion

  • Minute PaperWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?What was the muddiest point in this session?Give an example or applicationExplain in your own words . . .

    Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

  • Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with Concept TestsPhysics Peer InstructionEric Mazur - Harvard B http://galileo.harvard.eduPeer Instruction www.prenhall.comRichard Hake http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/

    Chemistry Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison B www.chem.wisc.edu/~conceptVideo: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTestsModularChem Consortium B http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/

    STEMTECVideo: How Change Happens: Breaking the ATeach as You Were [email protected] Cycle B Films for the Humanities & Sciences B www.films.com

    HarvardThinking Together & From Questions to Concepts Interactive Teaching in Physics: Derek Bok Center B www.fas.harvard.edu/~bok_cen/

  • Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs traditional methods) http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/Traditional (lecture)Interactive (active/cooperative) = Concept Inventory Gain/Total

  • The Hake Plot of FCIPretest (Percent)0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.00ALSSDIWPPI(HU)ASU(nc)ASU(c)HUWP*

  • Physics (Mechanics) Concepts:The Force Concept Inventory (FCI)A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.The choice of topics is based on careful thought about what the fundamental issues and concepts are in Newtonian dynamics.Uses common speech rather than cueing specific physics principles. The distractors (wrong answers) are based on students' common inferences.

  • Informal CooperativeLearning Groups

    Can be used at any timeCan be short term and ad hocMay be used to break up a long lectureProvides an opportunity for students to process material they have been listening to (Cognitive Rehearsal)Are especially effective in large lecturesInclude "book ends" procedureAre not as effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or Cooperative Base Groups

  • Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35.

    Over 300 Experimental Studies First study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability Multiple OutcomesOutcomes

    1. Achievement and retention2. Critical thinking and higher-levelreasoning3. Differentiated views of others4. Accurate understanding of others' perspectives5. Liking for classmates and teacher6.Liking for subject areas7. Teamwork skills

  • Small-Group Learning: Meta-analysisSpringer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. 1999. Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21-52.Small-group (predominantly cooperative) learning in postsecondary science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET). 383 reports from 1980 or later, 39 of which met the rigorous inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The main effect of small-group learning on achievement, persistence, and attitudes among undergraduates in SMET was significant and positive. Mean effect sizes for achievement, persistence, and attitudes were 0.51, 0.46, and 0.55, respectively.

  • Strategies for Energizing Large Classes: From Small Groups toLearning Communities:

    Jean MacGregor,James Cooper,Karl Smith,Pamela Robinson

    New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 81, 2000.Jossey- Bass

  • Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups

  • Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).

    Key ConceptsPositive InterdependenceIndividual and Group AccountabilityFace-to-Face Promotive InteractionTeamwork SkillsGroup Processing

  • Formal Cooperative Learning

    Jigsaw

    2.Peer Composition or Editing

    3.Reading Comprehension/Interpretation

    4.Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation

    5.Review/Correct Homework

    6.Constructive Academic Controversy

    7.Group Tests

  • Challenged-Based LearningProblem-based learningCase-based learningProject-based learningLearning by designInquiry learningAnchored instructionJohn Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn

  • Professor's Role inFormal Cooperative Learning

    Specifying Objectives

    Making Decisions

    Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and Individual Accountability

    Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills

    Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group Effectiveness

  • Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format

    TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project.

    INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy.

    COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

    EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

    EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints.

    INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each problem.

    EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members.

    INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group.

  • Cooperative Base GroupsAre HeterogeneousAre Long Term (at least one quarter or semester)Are Small (3-5 members)Are for supportMay meet at the beginning of each session or may meet between sessionsReview for quizzes, tests, etc. togetherShare resources, references, etc. for individual projectsProvide a means for covering for absentees

  • It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments. James Duderstadt, 1999

    We never educate directly, but indirectly by means of the environment. Whether we permit chance environments to do the work, or whether we design environments for the purpose makes a great difference. John Dewey, 1906

  • Session Summary(Minute Paper)

    Reflect on the session:What were the most important points for you?What is one thing you would be willing to try?What questions do you have?

    Pace: Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fastRelevance: Little 1 . . . 5 LotsFormat: Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah

  • Group Ground Rules Contract Form

    (Adapted from a form developed by Dr. Deborah Allen, University of Delaware)

    Project groups are an effective aid to learning, but to work best they require that all groups members clearly understand their responsibilities to one another. These project group ground rules describe the general responsibilities of every member to the group. You can adopt additional ground rules if your group believes they are needed. Your signature on this contract form signifies your commitment to adhere to these rules and expectations.

    All group members agree to:

    1. Come to class and team meetings on time.

    2. Come to class and team meetings with assignments and other necessary preparations done.

    Additional ground rules:

    If a member of the project team repeatedly fails to meet these ground rules, other members of the group are expected to take the following actions:

    Step 1: (fill in this step with your group)

    If not resolved:

    Step 2: Bring the issue to the attention of the teaching team.

    If not resolved:

    Step 3: Meet as a group with the teaching team.

    The teaching team reserves the right to make the final decisions to resolve difficulties that arise within the groups. Before this becomes necessary, the team should try to find a fair and equitable solution to the problem.

    Members Signatures:

    Group Number:______________

    1.____________________________

    2.____________________________

    3.____________________________

    4.____________________________

  • Comparison of Learning GroupsLess Structured (Traditional)More Structured (Cooperative)Low interdependence. Members takeresponsibility only for self. Focus is onindividual performance only.High positive interdependence. Membersare responsible for own and each otherslearning. Focus is on joint performance.Individual accountability onlyBoth group and individual accountability. Members hold self and others accountablefor high quality work.Assignments are discussed with littlecommitment to each others learning.Members promote each others success. The do real work together and help andsupport each others efforts to learn.Teamwork skills are ignored. Leader isappointed to direct members participation.Teamwork skills are emphasized. Membersare taught and expected to use social skills. All members share leadershipresponsibilities.No group processing of the quality of itswork. Individual accomplishments arerewarded.Group processes quality of work and howeffectively members are working together. Continuous improvement is emphasized.rewarded.Continuous improvement is emphasized.

    8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, 8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, 8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, 8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms, (yeah! The red arrow is pointing at one of our undergrad researchersMichelle Valeriano)Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Barr & Tagg's From teaching to learing is the most often requested article from Change mangazine

    Bill Camplbell and I started working on New Paradigms in 1993.Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"Table summarizes my perception of the shift. A version of this table is available in New Paradigms for Engineering Education -- FIE Conf proceedings 97 (avail on the www)

    One of the most significant changes that has occurred is the shift from "pouring in knowledge" to "creating a climate where learning flows among students and the professor"