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<ul><li><p>8/11/2019 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 2014 Mertkan 226 42</p><p> 1/18</p><p>http://ema.sagepub.com/Administration &amp; Leadership</p><p>Educational Management</p><p>http://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226The online version of this article can be foundat:</p><p>DOI: 10.1177/1741143213499252</p><p>October 20132014 42: 226 originally published online 1Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership</p><p>Sefika MertkanIn search of leadership: what happened to management?</p><p>Published by:</p><p>http://www.sagepublications.com</p><p>On behalf of:</p><p>British Educational Leadership, Management &amp; Administration Society</p><p>can be found at:Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadershipdditional services and information for</p><p>http://ema.sagepub.com/cgi/alertsEmail Alerts:</p><p>http://ema.sagepub.com/subscriptionsSubscriptions:</p><p>http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navReprints:</p><p>http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navPermissions:</p><p>What is This?</p><p>- Oct 1, 2013OnlineFirst Version of Record</p><p>- Feb 28, 2014Version of Record&gt;&gt;</p><p>at U.A.E University on July 7, 2014ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from at U.A.E University on July 7, 2014ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from</p>http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226http://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226http://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226http://www.sagepublications.com/http://www.sagepublications.com/http://www.belmas.org.uk/http://ema.sagepub.com/cgi/alertshttp://ema.sagepub.com/cgi/alertshttp://ema.sagepub.com/subscriptionshttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navhttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navhttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navhttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navhttp://online.sagepub.com/site/sphelp/vorhelp.xhtmlhttp://online.sagepub.com/site/sphelp/vorhelp.xhtmlhttp://ema.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/09/24/1741143213499252.full.pdfhttp://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226.full.pdfhttp://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://online.sagepub.com/site/sphelp/vorhelp.xhtmlhttp://ema.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/09/24/1741143213499252.full.pdfhttp://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226.full.pdfhttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navhttp://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navhttp://ema.sagepub.com/subscriptionshttp://ema.sagepub.com/cgi/alertshttp://www.belmas.org.uk/http://www.sagepublications.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/content/42/2/226http://ema.sagepub.com/</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 2014 Mertkan 226 42</p><p> 2/18</p><p>Article</p><p>In search of leadership: whathappened to management?</p><p>Sefika Mertkan</p><p>Abstract</p><p>Significant changes have taken place in the governance of education systems around the world.Shifts in education policy have led to a focus towards reform through leadership development andaway from school management analysis. This shift in policy from management to leadership has</p><p>fostered a large number of academic studies presenting a universal and decontextualised leadershipdiscourse, which dominates the field of education research to the detriment of issues of schoolmanagement and head teachers capacity to manage schools. This paper examines the domain ofheadship in the context of North Cyprus. Through the perspectives of head teachers and policymakers, it demonstrates that within the North Cyprus context, leadership, as defined in thedominant discourse, is not yet possible, and management is both difficult and sometimesinadequate. Findings suggest that there is a strong relationship between school leadership andmanagement practices. The context within which head teachers operate influences their leadershipand management practices and capacity development.</p><p>Keywords</p><p>Educational leadership, school leadership, head teachers, international development, educationalpolicy</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Over two decades ago, Cuban distinguished leadership from management, linking leadership to</p><p>change and management to maintenance of present operations; he emphasised that different</p><p>settings and times call for varied responses (Cuban 1988: xx). To put it differently, the context</p><p>within which [leaders] lead makes a difference to how they lead (Lumby et al., 2009: 164). A</p><p>recent shift in education policy in many countries with advanced economies towards decentra-</p><p>lisation, marketisation and performativity have restructured school leadership and recultured the</p><p>work of school leaders through various mechanisms. This shift in the focus of reform has created a</p><p>relentless preoccupation with educational reform through leadership development and led to</p><p>declined official interest in school management. Scholars have paid unparalleled attention to the</p><p>new work of school leaders, to the detriment of management concerns and headteachers capacity</p><p>Corresponding author:</p><p>Sefika Mertkan, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Mersin 10 Turkey. Cyprus.Email: sm331@cantab.net</p><p>Educational Management</p><p>Administration &amp; Leadership</p><p>2014, Vol. 42(2) 226242 The Author(s) 2013</p><p>Reprints and permission:</p><p>sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav</p><p>DOI: 10.1177/1741143213499252</p><p>emal.sagepub.com</p><p>226</p><p>at U.A.E University on July 7, 2014ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from</p>http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.navhttp://emal.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://emal.sagepub.com/http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 2014 Mertkan 226 42</p><p> 3/18</p><p>to manage schools. Consequently, leadership has become a dominant discourse in the field, with</p><p>the vast majority of literature in the field of school management and administration addressing the</p><p>issue of leadership and neglecting the issue of management.</p><p>These studies present, almost exclusively, a universal and decontextualised discourse of educa-</p><p>tional leadership, which presents leadership as a combination of inspiration, vision and the abilityto manage competing tensions while building organisational capacity and leadership capacity in</p><p>others. Educational leadership accounts from the periphery, small in number, occupy a marginal</p><p>space within the field and have little or no impact on leadership theories, while different, distinct</p><p>or dissenting perspectives on educational leadership and management remain impotent in the face</p><p>of the dominant paradigm. In the big tent (Donmoyer, 1999) of educational leadership and man-</p><p>agement, many models have been constructed, but diversity of perspective remains elusive. This</p><p>can be a serious obstacle to educational effectiveness and school reform in traditional communities</p><p>with developing economies, where the recent shift in education policy has not yet made its mark.</p><p>This dominant focus on leadership ignores the importance of context and does not address</p><p>contextual dysfunctionalities that may obstruct leadership among school managers in some educa-tional systems such as South Africa (Bush and Heystek, 2006; Bush et al., 2010; Chisholm et al.,</p><p>2005), Slovenia (Trnavcevic and Vaupot, 2009), Ghana (Oduro and MacBeath, 2003), and Greece</p><p>(Gkolia and Brundrett, 2008). Additionally, it often overlooks differences in national cultures,</p><p>which, as demonstrated primarily by research on corporate leadership and management, signifi-</p><p>cantly affect leadership and management practices needed in a particular country and leadership</p><p>behaviours that have positive effects (Dickson et al., 2003; Shahin and Wright, 2004; Sidani,</p><p>2008).1</p><p>This paper addresses the work of head teachers in the context of North Cyprus and explores the</p><p>duties and the responsibilities of head teachers along with the challenges they face. It is in five</p><p>parts. First, in order to situate the local within the global, the dominant leadership discourse in thefield of leadership and management is examined. This section is followed by a brief description of</p><p>the policy context in North Cyprus. Third, methods of data gathering and analysis are discussed.</p><p>Fourth, key themes from the study are presented and critically analysed. Finally, the concluding</p><p>section states that the work of head teachers in North Cyprus is burdensome, fully focused on</p><p>administrative and management issues and offers limited opportunities to exercise leadership, little</p><p>agency for change and limited capacity to improve teaching and learning.</p><p>The work of school leaders: a homogenised perspective?</p><p>Education reform has been pursued relentlessly in many countries with advanced economies(Fullan, 2000). Although travelling policies show significant variations in different school systems</p><p>(Priestley, 2002), the general trend evident in OECD countries and in Europe has been towards</p><p>greater decentralisation of management and marketisation. There is now considerable consensus</p><p>that, in contexts where these policies apply, the form of government control has changed to indirect</p><p>steering through a culture of performativity with elements of accountability and standardisation</p><p>(Ball, 2003; Ball, 2001; Bottery, 2007; Day, 2003; Gronn, 2003b; Priestley, 2002).</p><p>Within this framework, school leadership is linked to educational reform, school improvement</p><p>and organisational change (Bush, 2008b; Rhodes and Brundrett, 2009) where the work of head</p><p>teachers is intensified and diversified to include both organisational capacity, building with ele-</p><p>ments of pedagogical leadership and leadership development in others, and business managementwith elements of financial management, human resource management and site management</p><p>Mertkan: In search of leadership 227</p><p>227</p><p>at U.A.E University on July 7, 2014ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from</p>http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 2014 Mertkan 226 42</p><p> 4/18</p><p>(Crow, 2007; Gronn, 2003b; Mertkan, 2011). Headship has become extremely complex over the</p><p>past two decades in particular and head teachers have been increasingly pressured to deliver more</p><p>at a faster pace and to work longer hours. Integral to this new educational landscape is the notion of</p><p>headship as greedy work (Gronn, 2003b: 153) with increased workload (Bristow et al., 2007;</p><p>French and Daniels, 2007; Southworth, 1995; Thomson, 2008, 2009; Webb et al., 2006). Thegrowing importance of school leaders and education reform through leadership development in the</p><p>changing governance of education systems have made the study of school leadership and school</p><p>leaders an unparalleled trend (Slater et al., 2008) characterised by an explosion of leadership</p><p>literature (Simkins, 2005: 9).</p><p>The role of management in education has been downplayed and management issues ignored,</p><p>while the vast majority of the literature in the field addresses and canonises leadership and lead-</p><p>ership capacity building to the detriment of head teachers capacity to manage schools (Glatter,</p><p>2006). A number of theoretical models are provided. These include transformational leadership</p><p>(Leithwood et al., 1999), distributed leadership (Gronn, 2000; Leithwood et al., 2007; J. Spillane,</p><p>2006), change leadership (Fullan, 2002), pedagogical leadership (Webb, 2005), and strategic lead-ership (Davies, 2003). Collectively, these theories are based on an idea of leadership that requires</p><p>inspiration, vision, collegiality, non-hierarchical relationships and structures, people centeredness</p><p>and the ability to manage many competing tensions successfully while building leadership</p><p>capacities in others. Within the dominant leadership game, there issomerecognition that manage-</p><p>ment is important and inseparable from leadership (Bush et al., 2010; Gunter, 2008; Gunter and</p><p>Thomson, 2009) and leadership responsibilities of head teachers do not diminish their managerial</p><p>roles (Bush, 2008a; Gronn, 2003a). Head teachers are simultaneously leaders and managers (Hall,</p><p>1996) within contexts in which their work takes place, and which constraints, creates possibilities</p><p>and offers different frames for leadership and management. Leadership and management functions</p><p>are contingent on context and contextual complexity is an important function of leadership andmanagement (Avolio, 2007).</p><p>The dominant educational leadership and management literature, however, not only lacks a</p><p>context-oriented approach and fails to take sufficient cognisance of the policies that shape the</p><p>environments in which head teachers operate, but also pays inadequate attention to the importance</p><p>of management through this fixation on leadership (Spillane, 2009). Decontextualised leadership</p><p>solutions present school leaders as operating in a vacuum with the ability, or lack of it, to transform</p><p>schools using context-free transformation strategies (Close and Raynor, 2010; Glatter, 2006). This</p><p>discussion has been built on studies primarily carried out in countries with advanced economies</p><p>where scholars have exerted disproportionate influence on the field of leadership and management,</p><p>which has become highly decontextualised with an implicit assumption that it is universal(Ngcobo and Tikly, 2010; Walker and Dimmock, 2002a). This decontextualised and universal</p><p>discourse of leadership fails to address crucial, historically and culturally determined dysfunction-</p><p>alities apparent in some educational systems that may obstruct leadership and leadership capacity</p><p>development among school leaders. Rather, a universal model of leadership may be an obstacle to</p><p>educational effectiveness and school reform in countries where such dysfunctionalities exist.</p><p>Turkish Cypriot education system: a brief overview</p><p>Very small in size and never densely populated, Cyprus was divided by the green line in 1964</p><p>following inter-communal struggles, and into North and South in 1974. Today, North Cyprus ishome to Turkish Cypriots along with many citizens of Turkey, all of whom are governed by the</p><p>228 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 42(2)</p><p>228</p><p>at U.A.E University on July 7, 2014ema.sagepub.comDownloaded from</p>http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/http://ema.sagepub.com/</li><li><p>8/11/2019 Educational Management Administration &amp; Leadership 2014 Mertkan 226 42</p><p> 5/18</p><p>Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). The TRNC has not been recognised as politically</p><p>legitimate, and a range of internationally-imposed social, political and economic embargoes have</p><p>been applied to the North (UN Security Council, 1983, 1984). The Turkish Cypriot education sys-</p><p>tem has remained highly centralised with an entrenched bureaucracy where major decision-making</p><p>powers are concentrated in the Ministry of National Education and Culture (MEC). These powersinclude developing, designing and executing policies for syllabi, curricula and textbooks, and</p><p>assessment and regulation of all educational organisations under its jurisdiction. Almost all deci-</p><p>sions made in schools are subject to the permission given by primary and secondary education</p><p>departments.</p><p>Teachers and school managers work in favourable circumstances. Th...</p></li></ul>

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