economy grid: a new e-paradigm for grid/internet computing gaurav gunjan jha email:- crazytitan05@ ...

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  • Economy Grid: A New e-Paradigm for Grid/Internet Computing



  • What is Grid ?An infrastructure that couples:Computers (PCs, workstations, clusters, traditional supercomputers, and even laptops, notebooks, mobile computers, PDA, and so on) Software ? (e.g., ASPs renting expensive special purpose applications on demand)Catalogued Data/Databases (e.g., transparent access to human genome database)Special Instruments (e.g., radio telescope--SETI@Home Searching for Life in galaxy, Austrophysics@Swinburne for pulsars)People/collaborators (even animals who knows ?) and offers a simple, consistent, dependable, & pervasive access across (local/wide-area) networks to present them as an unified integrated resource.

  • Who pays for all this ?Any Incentive for GRID resource owners ?GUSTODistributed ASCI SupercomputerNASA IPG

  • Building ofa brokerage system.. Foundation for the Grid Economy

  • Economy Grid: GRACEGrid Architecture for Computational EconomyGRACE aims help Nimrod/G overcome the current limitations.GRACE middleware offer generic interfaces (APIs) that other developers of grid tools can use along with Globus services.

  • Why Computational Economy in Resource Management ?Observe Grid characteristics and current resource management policies Grid resources are not owned by user or single organisation.They have their own administrative policy Mismatch in resource demand and supplyoverall resource demand may exceed supply.Markets are an effective institution in coordinating the activities of several entities.Traditional System-centric (performance matrix approaches does not suit in grid environment.System-Centric --> User CentricLike in real life, economic-based approach is one of the best ways to regulate selection and scheduling on the grid as it captures user-intent.

  • Advantages of Economic-based RMHelps in regulating demand and supplyresource access cost can fluctuate (based on demand and supply and system can adapt)Scalable SolutionNo need of central coordinator (during negotiation)Resources(sellers) and also Users(buyers) can make their own decisions and try to maximize utility and profit.Uniform Treatment of all ResourcesEverything can can be traded including CPU, Mem, Net, Storage/Disk, other devices/instrumentsEfficient allocation of resources

  • Computational Market Model for Grid Resource ManagementGrid UserApplicationGrid Resource BrokerGrid Resource/Control DomainsGrid ExplorerSchedule AdvisorTrade ManagerJob ControlAgentDeployment AgentTrade ServerResource AllocationResourceReservationR1Other servicesGrid Information Server(s)R2RmCharging Alg.AccountingGrid Node1TradingGrid MiddlewareInfo ?JobsHealthMonitor

  • Grid Open Trading ProtocolsGet ConnectedReply to Bid (DT)Negotiate Deal(DT)Confirm Deal(DT, Y/N).Cancel Deal(DT)Change Deal(DT)Get DisconnectedTrade ManagerTrade ServerPricing RulesDT - Deal Template - resource requirements (BM) - resource profile (BS) - price (any one can set) - status - change the above values - negotiation can continue - accept/decline - validity periodAPI

  • Economic Models for Resource Trading

    Commodity Market ModelPosted Prices ModelsTendering ModelAuction ModelShareholder ModelPartnership Model

  • A Commodity Market Model

    Grid Market Directory (GMD)


    Grid Info. Service

    (Grid Service Provider)

    register me as GSP

    Give me list of GSPs

    access price ?

    (GTS - Grid Trade Server)


    access price ?

    access price ?

    (RB selects GSPs)

  • Posted Price Model

    Grid Market Directory (GMD)


    2hrs SP2, $5

    Grid Info. Service

    (Grid Service Provider)

    T3E, $9/hr, Sunday

    Free for Genome

    10% discount today

    Any SP2/T3E? offersFree or < $2/hr clusters+matlab

    5MB free

    (GTS - Grid Trade Server)


  • Tender Model

    Grid Market Directory (GMD)


    Grid Info. Service

    (Grid Service Provider)

    Any Ads for service tenders

    Post: call for tenders

    (GTS - Grid Trade Server)


    (GSPs bid)

    gsp1 bid

    gsp3 bid?

    gsp2 bid?

    gspN bid?

    Is it Dutch Auction ?Buyers name their price and supplies compete to bid the lowest price.Eg:

  • Auction Model

    Grid Market Auctioneer (GMA)


    SP2 time, 9pm-8am

    Grid Info. Service

    (Grid Service Provider)

    Post: auction T3E service

    (GTS - Grid Trade Server)




    $2, gsp1

    $4, gsp1$2, gsp2

    (RBs bid)

    English Auction ? ( name their price and) buyers compete to bid the highest price. Vickrey Auction ?: Highest bidder gets at the price of second highest bidder!!

  • Service Items to be Charged

    CPU - User and System time Memory:maximum resident set size - page sizeamount of memory usedpage faults: with/without physical I/OStorage: size, r/w/block IO operationsNetwork: msgs sent/receivedSignals received, context switchesSoftware and Libraries accessed

  • How to decide Price ?

    Fixed price model (like todays Internet) Dynamic (like tomorrows Internet)Demand and SupplyUsage PeriodLoyalty of Customers (like Airlines favoring frequently flyers!)Historical dataAdvance Agreement (like Monash getting 17% discount for flights)Usage Timing (peak, off-peak, lunch time)Calendar based (holiday/vacation period)Bulk Purchase (register 100 .com domains at once!) Resource capability as benchmarked in the market!

  • Accounting, Allocations and Job Scheduling Flow @ each site/Grid Level


    Maui Scheduler








    Compute Resourcesclusters/SGI/SP/...

    0. Make Deposits, Transfers, Refunds, Queries/Reports1. Clients negotiates for access cost.2. Negotiation is performed per owner defined policies. 3. If client is happy, TS informs QB about access deal.4. Job is Submitted5. Check with QB for go ahead6. Job Starts7. Job Completes8. Inform QB about resource resource utilization.






    DB@Each Site

    GRID Bank

  • Payment

    Buy credits in advance / GSPs bill the user later--pay as you go Pay by Electronic CurrencyNetCash (anonymity) and NetCheque register with NC accounting servers, can write electronic cheques and send (e.g email). When deposited, balance is transferred from sender to receiver account.NetCashIt supports anonymity and it uses the NetCheque system to clear payments between currency servers.

  • Nimrod/G Resource Broker

    Nimrod/G Approach to Resource Management and Scheduling

  • What is Nimrod/G ?A global scheduler for managing and steering task farming (parametric simulation) applications on computational grid based on deadline and computational economy. Key FeaturesA single window to manage & control experimentResource DiscoveryTrade for ResourcesSchedulingSteering & data managementIt allows to study the behaviour of some of the output variables against a range of different input scenarios.

  • A Nimrod/G ClientDeadlineLegion hostsGlobus HostsBezek is in both Globus and Legion Domains

  • Conclude with a comparison with the Electrical Grid..Where we are ????

  • Alessandro Volta in Paris in 1801 inside France National Institute shows the battery at the presence of Napoleon IFresco by N. Cianfanelli (1841) (Zoological Section "La Specula" of National History Museum of Florence University)

  • .and in the future, I imagine a worldwidePower (Electrical) Grid ...What ?!?!This is a mad manOh, monDieu !

  • 2000 - 1801 = 199 Years

  • What will be the dominant grid approach in the next future ??

  • TrendsIt is very difficult to predict the future and this is particular true in a field such as Information TechnologyI think there is a world market for about five computers.Thomas J. Watson Sr., IBM Founder, 1943

  • Trends

    The time is exciting but the way is hard and long.GRID

  • ConclusionsThe Emergence of Internet as a Powerful connectivity media is bridging the gap between a number of technologies leading to what is known as Everything on IP.Cluster-based systems have become a platform of choice for mainstream computing. A number of GRID project world-wide have been presented to explore computing trend!Economic based approach to resource management is the way to go in the grid environment.Both sequential and parallel applications run seamless on desktops, SMPs, Clusters, and the Grid without any change.Grid: A Next Generation Internet ?