early people of the aegean minoan civilization minoan civilization –migrated from the island of...
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Early People of the AegeanMinoan CivilizationMigrated from the Island of CreteNamed them after Minos, legendary king of CreteSuccess through sea tradeRulers lived in the palace at Knossos Disappeared by 1400 BCVolcanic eruptionEarthquakeTidal Wave (Tsunami)Invaders (Mycenaean)
Art of the Minoans
Rulers of MycenaeFirst record of Greek-speaking people1400 BC to 1200 BCSea tradersWarrior-king built a thick-walled fortressRuled surrounding villagesLots of treasure, especially gold ornaments
Art of the Mycenaean
Trojan WarAround 1250 BCEconomic rivalry between Mycenaean and Troy (a city now in Turkey)
Troy controlled the Dardanelles Strait (narrow water passages) that connect the Black Sea and Mediterranean sea.
Who Is This Person?
The Age of HomerHomerLived around 750 BCBlind poet Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, two famous historical epic poemsIliad is a major source for the Trojan WarOdyssey describes how Odysseus returned home to his faithful wife, Penelope, after the fall of TroyBoth provide insight to the values of ancient Greeks such as honor, courage, and eloquence
The Real Homer
The Rise of Greek City-StatesSmall city-states developed (30,000 - 100,000)
Sailors traded:olive oilwinemarblemetals
By 750 BC, rapid population growth forced many Greeks to uproot, bringing their ideas and culture with themThe Rise of Greek City-States
The PolisUnique version of the city-state, developed after 750 BCBuilt usually on a hilltop (acropolis) Temples dedicated to gods and goddessesIncluded homes, theater, and an agora (marketplace)
Early Governments750-500 BC, different forms of government evolved:Monarchy Ruled by King or Queen AristocracyRuled by wealthy landownersOligarchyRule by middle-class farmers, merchants, and artisans
Example of a Phalanx
American Football is based on the phalanx formation
Changes in WarfareMilitary technology increased power of the middle classIron weapons and tools replaced bronzeMade helmets, shields, and swordsPhalanxHeavily armed soldiers in rows
Sparta: A Nation of SoldiersWere part of the Dorians cultureGreat soldiersConquered people into slaves called helotsBrutal system of strict controlexecutions
Government: 2 kings and a council of eldersCitizens approved all major decisionsCitizens were male, native-born Spartans over the age of 30Assembly elected 5 ephors or officials who held the real power and ran day-to-day affairs.
Where Is Sparta?
From birth, Spartans were part of a military stateHealthy babies lived; sick or weak babies were left to die
At 7, boys were sent to the barracks (military training)
At 20, they could marry, but had to live in the barracks
At 30, they took their place in the assembly
Spartans isolated themselves from other Greeks and forbade their citizens to travel
Athens: A Limited DemocracyGovernment evolved from a monarchy to an aristocracyOrdinary people were discontent (dissatisfied)
Athens moved toward democracy (government by the people)Only male citizens could participate in government
Where Is Athens?
WomenSparta WomenTrained to produce healthy sons for the army or elseObey fathers and husbandsCould inherit propertyMen were occupied with war, so some women were in charge of entire estatesAthens WomenNo share in public lifeGuided by menLived in seclusion (lonely)Managed the entire householdSpun, wove, cared for their children, and prepared food.
Forces of UnityShared a common Greek cultureSame languageGreekSame godsPolytheistic (belief in many gods); Zeus was the most powerfulSame heroesHercules; Jason and the Argonauts; Perseus; OdysseusSame festivalsOlympic games
Victory in the Greek WorldThe Persian Wars (Athenians vs. Persians)Greeks rebelled against Persian rule in 499 B.C. Pe rsian emperor, Darius, sent a huge force to attackForce landed in Marathon 490 BCGreeks sent Pheidippides to carry news to Athens; he sprinted 26.2 miles and died. Marathons today are 26.2 miles.Greeks defeated PersiansAthens emerged as the most powerful city-state in Greece
Golden Age of Athens PericlesA noble statesmanEconomy thrivedGovernment became democratic460 BC to 429 BC is often called the Age of PericlesRebuilt the AcropolisAthens became the cultural center of GreecePaid salaries and enabled poor men to serve
Peloponnesian War431-404 B.C. Athens vs. Sparta Athens attacked by seaSparta attacked by land
Plague broke out, killing 1/3 of the population, including Pericles
404 B.C. with help from the Persians, Sparta captured Athens
Democratic government sufferedCorruption and selfish interests ran rampant
Recall (You May Use Your Notes)What are 3 aspects from the Ancient Greece presentation that interest you the most?Aspect 1: