early civilizations of india, pakistan and china

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  • Early Civilizations of India, Pakistan and China

  • Concepts and DefinitionsIndiaHow does geography effect India?Where and what were Indias first civilizations?Why did they decline?Who were the Aryans?What were some of their cultural contributions?Describe the caste systemDescribe the principles of Buddhism and HinduismVocabulary and PlacesCaste- know all five classesIndus River,Ganges RiverHimalaya MountainsHinduismBuddhismKarmaDharmapatriarchal societynirvana

  • Geography of IndiaGeography major force shaping the early cultures of IndiaHimalaya Mountains to the north, ocean to the southCentral India-Deccan Plateau a dry area not good for supporting agriculture.coast is a good agricultural region, densest populations.Two major river systems The Ganges and the Indus- begin in the Himalayas.The first civilizations grew up around the Indus River Valley

  • Monsoons were a defining feature of lifeMonsoon rains come in the summer and in the winter the wind shifts direction and bring it brings hot, dry airMonsoons bring rain to agricultural areas

    What if the monsoons came too early or late?Geography of India

  • Indias First CivilizationsAlong the Indus River valley in present day Pakistan, civilization flourished from 3,000-1500 B.C.Two major cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-DaroVery little is known about this culture because archeologists have yet to decipher their writing

  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Each city around 35,000 people

    well planned with grid streets, raised buildings and a sewer system

    The uniformity suggests cities had well organized governments

    Like all ancient civilizations, religion and political power were closely linked

    Harappan economy was based on agriculture and they trade extensively with Mesopotamian civilizations

    Environmental factors and invasion led to the downfall of the Harappan culture

    These cities were not discovered until the 1920s

  • Using your notes and the book (pages 72-73) describe features of Harappan culture that demonstrate they were an advanced civilization.Question #1

  • InvadersAryans, a nomadic group from central Asia, crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains and conquered the region around 1500 B.C.The Aryans created a new society in India. They eventually controlled most of northern IndiaThe Aryans settled down and became agriculturists. They used iron, a new invention, to clear land. They grew grains in the arid north, rice, cotton and spices were grown in the south and along the river valleys

  • Aryan LifeThe Aryans developed a written language , Sanskrit around 1000B.C.

    They wrote religious rituals, legends that had previously been passed down orally

    The writings reveal that early Aryan culture was ruled by rajas. Each had a small state and fought each other

    Question #2- What are the advantages of passing on cultural knowledge orally and passing it on through writing? What are the disadvantages?

  • Society in Ancient IndiaAryan conquest had long lasting effects on India

    Created social divisions and a set of social institutions that last even today- this is known as the caste system

  • Important Indian social creation

    It sets up a rigid hierarchy that determines a persons occupation, economic potential and social status

    It was based in part on a persons skin color- the Aryan conquers were had lighter skin than the native Indians

    The five castes are- Brahman, Kshatriyas, Viasyas, Sudras and the UntouchablesCaste System pages 74-77

  • Known as jatiThere are thousands of castes in India.

    Brahmans- top of society, usually priests, in charge of religious ceremoniesKshatriayas- typically warriors, as society changed they found new forms of employmentVaisyas- commoners, merchants and farmers

    Caste System

  • Sudras- most people in India, peasants that preformed manual labor, had limited rightsUntouchables- the lowest class, did jobs other Indians would not accept, collecting trash, handling dead bodies, lived away from others, not considered humanCaste System

  • Life centered on the family unit

    Ideal family had three generation living under one roof (grandparents, parents and children)

    Oldest male was head of the household (patriarchal society)

    Men were educated, taught by a guru

    Marriage was important and arranged by the parents

    Symbol of dominance by men was the suttee. It was a funeral pyre that women had to throw themselves on top of after the death of their husbandFamily Life in Ancient India

  • One of the worlds most complex religionsHinduism has no single founder or sacred textMixture of Aryan beliefs and native Indian beliefsHinduism has many different gods and goddesses because to Hindus Brahman is too complex for most people to understand

    Hinduism God is one but wise people know it by many names

  • Hindu BeliefsHinduism is a polytheistic religionImportant Gods-Brahma the CreatorVishnu the PreserverShiva the DestroyerEach represents an aspects of Brahman- they can take many different forms and each is worshiped by different peopleEach god also has a family

  • Sacred TextsHindu teaching recorded in the Vedas and the UpanishadsBhagavad-Gita spells out many ethical ideas central to Hinduism- importance of duty over desire and ambition

  • Every person has an essential self (atman)

    Ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha, a union with BrahmanTo do this you must free yourself from personal, selfish desire

    Most do not achieve moksha in one lifetime Hindus believe in reincarnation- rebirth of the soul in another bodily form- allows Hindus to achieve moksha through many lifetimesHindu Goal of Life

  • Karma and DharmaEasier to achieve moksha if you follow rules of karmaKarma- all of the actions in this life will effect your next life. Symbolized by the wheel of fateTo escape wheel of fate need to perform the religious and moral duties of a Hindu- dharma. obeying dharma a person acquires merit for the next life.concepts of karma and dharma ensure social order by supporting the caste system

  • Describe the relationship between the caste system, dharma.

    Why are sacred texts important to many religions?Assignment

  • In the sixth century B.C. a son of a local ruling family in northern India named Siddhartha Gautama founded a new religion

    This religion would spread across Asia and become one of the worlds most influential religions

    He wanted to escape the trappings of his good life and discover the true meaning of life

    After searching and wandering he meditated under a tree for forty-eight days and understood the cause of suffering. He became the Buddha, The Enlightened One Buddhism pages 78-79

  • BuddhismGoal of Buddhist life is to attain nirvana that is the end of self and the union with the Great World soul.All life is suffering, caused by human attachment to the material world. Once people let go of this attachment worldly pain and suffering are forgotten

  • The Four Noble TruthsOrdinary life is full of sufferingSuffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselvesThe way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as an extension of ourselvesThe way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path

  • Middle PathRight ViewRight IntentionRight SpeechRight ActionRight EffortRight LivelihoodRight MindfulnessRight Concentration- meditation

  • Both grew from the same traditionsBoth stress nonviolence, karma, dharma, nonviolence, and a cycle of rebirthHinduism had formal rituals and many godsBuddhism had rejected rituals, individuals seek spiritual enlightenment through meditation, nirvana was offered to all regardless of birth.Buddhism and Hinduism Compared

  • Indian Empires and Culture400 B.C. to 500 A.D.

  • PeopleChandragupta MauryaAsokaAryabhata

    Cultural Items and PlacesSilk RoadStupaRock chamberConcepts and Definitions to know

  • In 400 B.C. the Aryan rule was in decline and India was comprised of warring rajas. India faced a new threat from the west-Persia and then from the Macedonian general Alexander the GreatChandragupta Maurya founded the first great empire in India around 350 B.C. to 301 B.C.The Mauryan Empire waged war to gain powerMauryan Dynasty pages 81-82

  • Mauryan DynastyThe Mauryan Empire: Had a large army and secret policeHad a highly centralized governmentThe empire was divided into four provinces ruled by local governorsTo pay for the government the people, agriculture and industry were heavily taxed

  • Thirty two years after the death of Chandragupta his grandson Asoka became the ruler Many consider him the greatest ruler ever in IndiaEarly in his reign he used the military to expand the power of the empireAfter a battle where over 100,000 soldiers died he converted to Buddhism and adopted a policy of non-violenceMauryan Empire under Asoka

  • Mauryan Empire under AsokaAfter his conversion he advocated religious tolerance, treated his subjects humanely, opened hospitalsThroughout the empire he erected large stone pillars with his edictsHe built roads and planted trees to make travel easierHe sent out missionaries to spread Buddhist teachingsHe disbanded the secret police and the government looked out for peoples welfare

  • After the death of Asoka period of war and disunity new kingdom in northern India dominated by trade trade connections and political instability elsewhere people from central Asia, Greece and Persia settle in northern India. migration added to and created instability in Indian culture.southern India - Tamil Empire dominated they practiced different religion (Jainism