diagnostic tools in dentistry

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  1. 1. DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN DENTISTRY English Activity Valencia, Spain. M51 18-5-17
  2. 2. INDEX OF WORK Introduction Saliva X-Ray Biopsy Bibliography
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Diagnosis Is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Its used in medicine, science and business.
  4. 4. SALIVA Saliva is a watery substance secreted by the salivary glands. Comprises: a. water 99,5%. b. electrolytes. c. mucus. d. glycoproteins. e. enzymes. f. antimicrobial agents. g. epithelial cells. h. White blood cells.
  5. 5. SALIVA Saliva can be seen in many cases as a reflection of the physiological function of the body. Its useful for early diagnosis.
  6. 6. SALIVA
  7. 7. SALIVA Cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, the leading etiological factor, is triggered by the presence of inflammation, which results in deposition of lipids in the arterial walls and progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen. People with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) are more likely to be unaware of their susceptibility to develop cardio- vascular disease.
  8. 8. SALIVA Cardiovascular disease. Salivary CRP levels were found to correlate with plasma CRP levels obtained from blood samples of a population at risk for cardiovascular complications. Detect cardiac troponin (cTn), a biomarker for the detection of AMI.
  9. 9. SALIVA HIV / AIDS Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) affects the immune system. It is a sexually-transmitted disease that also spreads through infected blood transfusions and from diseased mothers to infants.
  10. 10. SALIVA HIV / AIDS HIV Test can detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses with an oral swab. A swab is left in place for 25 min between the lower gingival and buccal mucosa to collect antibodies in the saliva.
  11. 11. SALIVA Oral Cancer. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common form of oral cancer. Research groups have found that salivary levels of specific proteins are increased in whole saliva of patients with OSCC (CD44).
  12. 12. SALIVA Salivary tests will pave the way for chair-side diagnosis of multiple oral and systemic diseases at the dental office. The advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines will make salivary diagnostics a reality in the near future.
  13. 13. Dental X-rays
  14. 14. Dental X-rays are a type of image of the teeth and mouth. Are used in dentistry as a fundamental diagnostic tool. With them we can see pathologies that at first sight we can not detect. In them we see the structures of the oral cavity reflected according to their density. INTRODUCTION
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION Dental x ray machine
  16. 16. Interproximal radiographs Periapical radiographs Occlusal radiographs Panoramic radiographs
  17. 17. OBJECTIVES Quantity, size and position of teeth. Teeth that have not come out or teeth impacted. Dental caries. Bone damage (such as that produced by periodontitis). Dental abscesses. Fractured jaw. Problems in the way the upper and lower teeth fit Other anomalies of mandibular teeth and bones.
  18. 18. Parallel technique: The radiograph is placed in a position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tooth to be examined, in a central beam directed perpendicular to the radiograph and the longitudinal axis of the tooth Bisector technique: At the point where the radiograph has contact with the tooth, the plane of the radiograph, and the longitudinal axis of the tooth form an angle, the radiologist must imagine a plane that divides by half the angle formed by the film and the longitudinal axis of the tooth, this plane is called bisector, which creates two equal angles
  19. 19. RISKS Exposure to radiation from dental radiographs is very low. A lead apron may be used to cover the body and reduce radiation exposure. Pregnant women should not be given x- rays unless absolutely necessary.
  20. 20. Laboratory tests of interest in dentistry Haematological Hemostasis Blood biochemistry saliva
  21. 21. Blood count Erythrocyte series: number of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin Leukocyte series: Total count, neutrophils, monocytes Platelet series: normal value : 150.000-400.000 mm3
  22. 22. Blood chemistry Blood glucose Creatinine alkaline phosphatase Transaminases
  23. 23. Infections diseases: VIH Hepatitis TBC It is better to prevent a complication through diagnosis than to resolve it intraoperatively
  24. 24. BIOPSY A biopsy is a medical test which consists in a sample of tissue taken from the body in order to examine it more closely. To determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analysed chemically.
  25. 25. BIOPSY Excisional biopsy: entire lump or suspicious area is removed, including healthy tissue around Incisional biopsy: only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissues cells.
  26. 26. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Biopsies are most commonly performed for insight into possible cancerous and inflammatory conditions. Lesion with similar clinical or radiological morphology. Provides definitive diagnosis, prognosis and treatment information.
  27. 27. BIOPSY Contraindications: 1. Patients with conditions that can preclude the safe use of local anaesthetic and those with severe bleeding diseases and coagulopathies. 1. Invasive procedures on the bone: NO in patients with bisphosphonates treatment. 2. Risk for metastasis.
  28. 28. BIOPSY In most cases biopsies are carried out under local anaesthesia (an injection into the area to numb it). The injection takes a couple of minutes to work and means that the biopsy will be painless.
  29. 29. BIOPSY The biopsy usually leaves a small hole that often requires stitching. In the majority of cases the stitches used are dissolvable and take around two weeks to disappear. The whole process (local anaesthetic injection, biopsy and stitching) usually takes around 15 minutes from start to finish.
  30. 30. BIOPSY
  31. 31. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079770-overview. https://www.baoms.org.uk/patients/procedures/1/oral_mouth_biop sy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756071/. http://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/x-rays.