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  • Conservation Action Marketing

    Tools and Techniques

    Special Interim Update

    (Further Updates Pending)

    Prepared by Sarah Kipp and Clive CallawayProject co-founders and lead authors

    Release 1.5 July 2007First published 2001

    The Living by Water Project

  • There can be no purpose more inspiriting than to begin the age ofrestoration, reweaving the wondrous diversity of life that still surrounds


    E.O. Wilson, The Diversity of Life

    The attempt to actually reproduce an ecosystem may be an act ofincredible arrogance, and yet it is also an act of profound faith in the

    future of nature and human beings.

    Don Gayton, Landscapes of the Interior

  • Conservation Action Marketing Tools and TechniquesRelease 1.5 July 2007 1


    Developed for organizations and agencies working inconservation, this paper outlines some of the tools andtechniques that make up our conservation marketing approach.On many occasions and at numerous workshops andconferences, representatives of The Living by Water Project havereceived positive feedback regarding the special features of ourapproach for motivating citizens in caring for Canadas marineand freshwater shorelines.

    The Living by Water Project is a conservation program targetedto individual urban, rural and seasonal waterfront residents, andother citizens interested in natural healthy shorelines. Our goal isto improve the quality and quantity of wildlife habitat, includingcleaner air and water. At the outset of the project (in 1998) wecarried out an extensive needs assessment and did marketanalysis, including focus groups, to determine audiencerequirements. These were summarized in a strategic documentMaking It Happen A Strategic Approach to The Living byWater Project. A mission statement, guiding principles, and avision for the project were developed; as well, we determined thata hybrid conservation marketing approach would be critical toachieving our objectives.

    Through the project we are helping community-based groups andother partners to address the problem of shoreline degradation bymarketing an environment-friendly and wildlife habitat-friendlywaterfront lifestyle. We provide a variety of programs, initiatives,products and services to help groups, agencies and citizensachieve this end. We also work closely with the media.

    Our version of conservation marketing builds on modern ethicalbusiness marketing, and on the tools and techniques of bothcommunity-based social marketing and environmental education.Our purpose is to motivate and therefore move people along acontinuum from awareness through education, to attitude andbehaviour change and eventually sustained behaviour change.We believe that cumulative positive impacts are possible whenmany individuals change their lifestyles; in the nature of theproblem lies the solution.

    CONSERVATION MARKETING PRINCIPLESTo effectively change behaviour through conservation marketing,a conservation initiative must follow a number of principles.These are outlined in the following pages.


    In recognition of the roles and values ofCanada's shorelines, the followingexpresses our vision as waterfrontresidents:

    We enjoy healthy habitat, with betterair and water quality -- and wildlifeenjoys it too!

    Waterfront environments remainspecial places for recreation and forrestoring our spirits. Shorelines of ourstreams, lakes, rivers, and seashorescontinue to attract us.

    We protect wildlife through carefulwaterfront construction and shorelinerestoration.

    We express a sense of caring forwaterfronts by keeping our eyes on thewater and along the shoreline.

    We share information on caring for the"ribbon of life" with our shoreline andupland neighbours.

    Values of our waterfront propertiesare maintained as each of us learnsmore about environmental impacts andalternatives.

  • Conservation Action Marketing Tools and TechniquesRelease 1.5 July 20072

    Being Customer DrivenFrom a marketing perspective, the customer or client plays acentral role in determining how successful companies dobusiness what products and services they offer, how and whenthey offer them, and what prices they charge. What does thismean for a conservation initiative, and how does it translate intoaction?

    Defining your audience as your customer. Forconservation groups, the target audience needs to be viewedas your customer. You are selling knowledge, awareness andeducation, in order to ultimately achieve behaviour change in fact, sustained behaviour change over time.

    Respecting the client. For Living by Water Project initiatives,the customer is usually the waterfront resident. We need torespect them and their knowledge about, and visions for, theirwaterfront properties. We need to remember that they may beour neighbours or friends.

    Understanding the customer. This means providing servicesand products that are appropriate, and meet audience needs. Itmeans using understandable language, making materialrelevant for the customer (land owner, tenant or leaseholder),and using illustrations that are appropriate for diverseaudiences representing a range of ages, regional and ethnicbackgrounds.

    Understanding the customer means learning about who thecustomer is by researching demographic, psychographic(pertaining to activities, interests and opinions), andpsychometric (pertaining to personality and needs) profiles.Our Communication and Distribution Plan was developedbased upon research about target audience needs.

    Meeting customer needs. The importance of meetingcustomer needs is often overlooked in conservation programs.Enthusiasm for conservation can sometimes result inmessages and materials which may not engage the targetaudience. For example, our objective might be to protect asensitive shoreline ecosystem. The objectives of our targetaudience might include saving money or protecting personalhealth. One of our challenges is to find common ground, andframe conservation messages in ways that meet the needs ofthe audience at the same time. We had to remind ourselves ofthis constantly as we wrote On the Living Edge, the bookwhich is our main product for marine and freshwater shorelineresidents.

    Conservation Marketing

    Awareness + Education

    Attitude Change

    Behaviour Change

    Sustained Behaviour Change

  • Conservation Action Marketing Tools and TechniquesRelease 1.5 July 2007 3

    Presuming that the customer wants to do it right. Ratherthan approaching the target audience with the assumption thatthey have caused a problem, we presume that they would notknowingly destroy habitat or reduce water quality. We assumethat they do not know what they need to know. We presentchoices and avoid both finger-pointing and preaching.

    Testing and piloting.. Materials are thoroughly reviewed andtested wherever possible by using focus groups,questionnaires, and pilot programs. Based on feedback, wemodify and adjust.

    Overcoming barriers. Often, the blocks to a waterfrontresident taking action may be financial, a lack of time, orperceived peer pressure. When customer-driven marketinginfluences a program, products and services are developed inan integrated fashion to help overcome these blocks. ForLbyW, services have included access to low interest loans,access to volunteer labour, or access to local support groups.

    Finding common ground. By finding common ground andbridging the gap between our objectives and theirs, we inconservation programs can show customers how their needscan be met at the same time as achieving objectives ofshoreline protection and restoration.

    In the case of The Living by Water Project, client needs mayinclude assistance in solving problems such as erosion, septicissues, or help with native plants. They may be looking for tipsand techniques for improving their property, or for savingmoney and time. Using information and materials which weprovide, local groups can offer workshops and siteassessments which meet these needs at the same time asshoreline conservation messages are incorporated.

    Getting regular feedback. Meeting client needs for productsand services means that they must be continually evaluated,and that they must be updated regularly to remain relevant.The Living by Water Project is achieving this through:

    monitoring where possible sales, workshops, homesiteassessments, and other sales indicators

    tracking of numbers of commitments made for on-the-ground change

    using evaluation surveys to obtain feedback (for example,after workshops, and a phone survey of customers by anindependent marketing company to obtain feedback,including both individual waterfront residents andorganizations who have used our materials)

  • Conservation Action Marketing Tools and TechniquesRelease 1.5 July 20074

    constant dialogue with waterfront residents throughconducting shoreline home visits, answering inquiries,participating in cottage and home shows, etc.

    Using PromotionA conservation marketing approach means that promotion mustbe embedded throughout an outreach program. Promotion needsto be extensive to be effective; and, through creative thinking,many opportunities can be found for promotion, even whenbudgets are limited. Promotion is often cut from budgets of cash-starved programs but this can doom the program, particularlygiven the three times principle (research shows that peopleneed to see information at least three times before they act on it).This means that a single ad in a newspaper promoting anupcoming meeting is not usually sufficient to garner a highturnout. Paid advertising can quickly use up a budget, so othercreative ways need to be found to help promote a program.

    We ut