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  • Collecting and Analyzing StakeholderFeedback for Signing at Complex InterchangesPUBLICATION NO. FHWA-HRT-14-069 OCTOBER 2014

    Research, Development, and TechnologyTurner-Fairbank Highway Research Center6300 Georgetown PikeMcLean, VA 22101-2296

  • FOREWORD

    Interchange navigation presents a range of challenges that are different from those associated with driving on continuous roads. For example, interchanges confront the driver with time-sensitive task demands (i.e., forced-paced tasks). More specifically, drivers at unfamiliar interchanges must read the available signage, observe pavement markings, and determine a path through the interchange before they reach the gore point. As an additional source of stress, driver errors at interchanges are often more difficult to correct since drivers transfer to a grade-separated freeway, highway, or roadway which provides limited access points for their return to the original roadway. Clear navigation signage is needed to guide drivers and reduce errors.

    Recent Federal Highway Administration research examined challenges that drivers face while navigating complex interchanges, which was important for understanding these problems from the drivers perspective. The current project extended this line of research by conducting interviews with State engineers and other stakeholders about the practical challenges they encounter related to complex interchanges. These interviews provided information about how stakeholders identify problem interchanges, what types of problems occur, how they can address those problems, and how they deal with unique configurations that are not covered by existing design references. These findings were then used to identify research gaps, which were subsequently prioritized by a larger group of stakeholders. Obtaining this type of feedback is valuable because the stakeholders are the end-users of the findings that will emerge from future research projects. Thus, obtaining feedback directly from stakeholders is an important way to ensure that future research remains calibrated with the information needs of engineers and other practitioners.

    Monique R. Evans Director, Office of Safety

    Research and Development

    Notice This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

    The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

    Quality Assurance Statement The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

  • TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. Report No. FHWA-HRT-14-069

    2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipients Catalog No.

    4. Title and SubtitleCollecting and Analyzing Stakeholder Feedback for Signing at Complex Interchanges

    5. Report DateOctober 2014 6. Performing Organization Code

    7. Author(s)Monica G. Lichty, L. Paige Bacon, and Christian Richard

    8. Performing Organization Report No.

    9. Performing Organization Name and AddressBattelle Seattle Research Center 1100 Dexter Avenue North, Suite 400 Seattle, WA 98109

    10. Work Unit No.11. Contract or Grant No.DTF61-08-D-00032-T-13009

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and AddressOffice of Safety Research and Development Federal Highway Administration 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101-2296

    13. Type of Report and Period CoveredFinal Report 14. Sponsoring Agency CodeHRDS-30

    15. Supplementary NotesThe FHWA Technical Manager for this project was Jim Shurbutt, HRDS-30 16. AbstractThe purpose of this project was to identify design constraints related to signing, markings, and geometry for complex interchanges, and then to identify useful topics for future research that will yield findings that can address those design issues. Obtaining this feedback was an important way to ensure that future research remains calibrated with the information needs of engineers and other practitioners.

    This project involved conducting phone interviews with 17 State transportation departments, represented by 28 individuals. These interviews provided information about how stakeholders identify problem interchanges, what types of problems occur, how they can address those problems, and how they deal with unique configurations that are not covered by existing design references.

    Complex interchanges pose an ongoing challenge to roadway engineers and State transportation department personnel. These interchanges often involve multiple routes that converge or diverge within a short distance, resulting in geometric or signing elements that ultimately cause higher workload for drivers. However, there is no simple definition or single prototype example of a complex interchange, and a variety of geometric and signing elements can make different interchanges complex and difficult for drivers to navigate. Consequently, the human factors problems that drivers can face at these interchanges also vary greatly, which is reflected in the wide range of research needs identified by stakeholders. They also see value in additional research and design guidance that would address these information gaps. 17. Key WordsComplex Interchanges, Interchanges, Signage, Driver Behavior

    18. Distribution StatementNo restrictions. This document is available to the public through NTIS: National Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 http://www.ntis.gov

    19. Security Classif. (of this report)Unclassified

    20. Security Classif. (of this page)Unclassified

    21. No. of Pages61

    22. Price

    Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed pages authorized

  • ii

    * SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380.

    (Revised March 2003)

    SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS

    Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol LENGTH

    in inches 25.4 millimeters mm ft feet 0.305 meters m yd yards 0.914 meters m mi miles 1.61 kilometers km

    AREA in2 square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm2

    ft2 square feet 0.093 square meters m2

    yd2 square yard 0.836 square meters m2

    ac acres 0.405 hectares ha mi2 square miles 2.59 square kilometers km2

    VOLUME fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL gal gallons 3.785 liters L ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3

    yd3 cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m3

    NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m3

    MASS oz ounces 28.35 grams glb pounds 0.454 kilograms kgT short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")

    TEMPERATURE (exact degrees) oF Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9 Celsius oC

    or (F-32)/1.8 ILLUMINATION

    fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2

    FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N lbf/in2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa

    APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol

    LENGTHmm millimeters 0.039 inches in m meters 3.28 feet ft m meters 1.09 yards yd km kilometers 0.621 miles mi

    AREA mm2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in2

    m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2

    m2 square meters 1.195 square yards yd2

    ha hectares 2.47 acres ac km2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi2

    VOLUME mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz L liters 0.264 gallons gal m3 cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft3

    m3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd3

    MASS g grams 0.035 ounces ozkg kilograms 2.202 pounds lbMg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T

    TEMPERATURE (exact degrees) oC Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit oF

    ILLUMINATION lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc cd/m2 candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl

    FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS N newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in2

    *SI is the symbol for th International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. e(Revised March 2003)

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1 BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 1 PROJECT OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 1 REPORT OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................... 2

    CHAPTER 2. METHODS............................................................................................................ 3 STAKEHOLDERS ................................................................................................................. 3

    Stakeholder Recruitment ..................................................................................................... 3 Participating Organizations ...........

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