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Basic principle for chess openings.

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  • 31/07/2015 ChessopeningWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_opening 1/20

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    Thestartingpositionofchess

    Contents

    1Aimsoftheopening1.1Commonaimsinopeningplay1.2Toplevelobjectives

    2Openingrepertoires3Openingnomenclature4Classificationofchessopenings

    4.1Opengames:1.e4e54.2Semiopengames:1.e4,Blackplaysotherthan1...e54.3Closedgames:1.d4d54.4IndianDefenseSystems:1.d4Nf64.5OtherBlackresponsesto1.d44.6Flankopenings(includingEnglish,Rti,Bird's,andWhitefianchettos)

    ChessopeningFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    Achessopeningisthegroupofinitialmovesofachessgame.RecognizedsequencesofinitialmovesarereferredtoasopeningsbyWhite,ordefensesbyBlack,butopeningisalsousedasthegeneralterm.Therearemanydozensofdifferentopenings,andhundredsofnamedvariants.TheOxfordCompaniontoChesslists1,327namedopeningsandvariants.[1]Thesevarywidelyincharacterfromquietpositionalplaytowildtacticalplay.Inadditiontoreferringtospecificmovesequences,theopeningisthefirstphaseofachessgame,theotherphasesbeingthemiddlegameandtheendgame.

    Asequenceofopeningmovesthatisconsideredstandard(oftencataloguedinareferenceworksuchastheEncyclopaediaofChessOpenings)isreferredtoas"thebookmoves",orsimply"book".Thesereferenceworksoftenpresentthesemovesequencesinsimplealgebraicnotation,openingtrees,ortheorytables.Whenagamebeginstodeviatefromknownopeningtheory,theplayersaresaidtobe"outofbook".Insomeopeninglines,themovesconsideredbestforbothsideshavebeenworkedoutfortwentytotwentyfivemovesormore.Someanalysisgoestothirtyorthirtyfivemoves,asintheclassicalKing'sIndianDefenseandintheSveshnikovandNajdorfvariationsoftheSicilianDefense.[2]Professionalchessplayersspendyearsstudyingopenings,andcontinuedoingsothroughouttheircareers,asopeningtheorycontinuestoevolve.Playersattheclublevelalsostudyopeningsbuttheimportanceoftheopeningphaseissmallertheresincegamesarerarelydecidedintheopening.Thestudyofopeningscanbecomeunbalancedifitistotheexclusionoftacticaltrainingandmiddlegameandendgamestrategy.[3]

    Anewsequenceofmovesintheopeningisreferredtoasatheoreticalnovelty.Whenkeptsecretuntilusedinacompetitivegameitisoftenknownasapreparedvariation,apowerfulweaponintopclasscompetition.[4]

  • 31/07/2015 ChessopeningWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_opening 2/20

    4.6Flankopenings(includingEnglish,Rti,Bird's,andWhitefianchettos)4.7UnusualfirstmovesforWhite

    5Seealso6References7Externallinks

    Aimsoftheopening

    Commonaimsinopeningplay

    IrrespectiveofwhethertheyaretryingtogaintheupperhandasWhiteandequalizeasBlackortocreatedynamicimbalances,playersgenerallydevotealotofattentionintheopeningstagesto:[5]

    1. Development:Oneofthemainaimsoftheopeningistomobilizethepiecesonusefulsquareswheretheywillhaveimpactonthegame.Tothisend,knightsareusuallydevelopedtof3,c3,f6andc6(orsometimese2,d2,e7ord7),andbothplayers'kingandqueenpawnsaremovedsothebishopscanbedeveloped(alternatively,thebishopsmaybefianchettoedwithamaneuversuchasg3andBg2).Rapidmobilizationisthekey.Thequeen,andtoalesserextenttherooks,arenotusuallyplayedtoacentralpositionuntillaterinthegame,whenmanyminorpiecesandpawnsarenolongerpresent.

    2. Controlofthecenter:Atthestartofthegame,itisnotclearonwhichpartoftheboardthepieceswillbeneeded.However,controlofthecentralsquaresallowspiecestobemovedtoanypartoftheboardrelativelyeasily,andcanalsohaveacrampingeffectontheopponent.Theclassicalviewisthatcentralcontrolisbesteffectedbyplacingpawnsthere,ideallyestablishingpawnsond4ande4(ord5ande5forBlack).However,thehypermodernschoolshowedthatitwasnotalwaysnecessaryorevendesirabletooccupythecenterinthisway,andthattoobroadapawnfrontcouldbeattackedanddestroyed,leavingitsarchitectvulnerableanimpressivelookingpawncenterisworthlittleunlessitcanbemaintained.Thehypermodernsinsteadadvocatedcontrollingthecenterfromadistancewithpieces,breakingdownone'sopponent'scenter,andonlytakingoverthecenteroneselflaterinthegame.ThisleadstoopeningssuchasAlekhine'sDefenseinalinelike1.e4Nf62.e5Nd53.d4d64.c4Nb65.f4(theFourPawnsAttack),Whitehasaformidablepawncenterforthemoment,butBlackhopestoundermineitlaterinthegame,leavingWhite'spositionexposed.

    3. Kingsafety:Thekingissomewhatexposedinthemiddleoftheboard.Measuresmustbetakentoreducehisvulnerability.Itisthereforecommonforbothplayerseithertocastleintheopening(simultaneouslydevelopingoneoftherooks)ortootherwisebringthekingtothesideoftheboardviaartificialcastling.

    4. Preventionofpawnweakness:Mostopeningsstrivetoavoidthecreationofpawnweaknessessuchasisolated,doubledandbackwardpawns,pawnislands,etc.Someopeningssacrificeendgameconsiderationsforaquickattackontheopponent'sposition.SomeunbalancedopeningsforBlack,inparticular,makeuseofthisidea,suchastheDutchandtheSicilian.Otheropenings,suchastheAlekhineandtheBenoni,invitetheopponenttooverextendandformpawnweaknesses.Specificopeningsacceptpawnweaknessesinexchangeforcompensationintheformofdynamicplay.(SeePawnstructure.)

    5. Piececoordination:Astheplayersmobilizetheirpieces,theybothseektoensurethattheyareworkingharmoniouslytowardsthecontrolofkeysquares.

    6. Createpositionsinwhichtheplayerismorecomfortablethantheopponent:Transpositionisonecommonwayofdoingthis.[6][7]

  • 31/07/2015 ChessopeningWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_opening 3/20

    Apartfromtheseideas,otherstrategiesusedinthemiddlegamemayalsobecarriedoutintheopening.Theseincludepreparingpawnbreakstocreatecounterplay,creatingweaknessesintheopponent'spawnstructure,seizingcontrolofkeysquares,makingfavourableexchangesofminorpieces(e.g.gainingthebishoppair),orgainingaspaceadvantage,whetherinthecentreorontheflanks.

    Toplevelobjectives

    Athigherlevelsofcompetition,formanyyearsthemainobjectivesofopeningplayweretoobtainthebetterpositionwhenplayingasWhiteandtoequalizewhenplayingasBlack.TheideabehindthisisthatplayingfirstgivesWhiteaslightinitialadvantageforexample,Whitewillbethefirsttoattackifthegameopenssymmetrically(BlackmirrorsWhite'smoves).[5]

    Sinceaboutthe1950sanotherobjectivehasgraduallybecomemoredominant.AccordingtoIMJeremySilman,thepurposeoftheopeningistocreatedynamicimbalancesbetweenthetwosides,whichwilldeterminethecharacterofthemiddlegameandthestrategicplanschosenbybothsides.[8]Forexample,inthemainlineoftheWinawerVariationoftheFrenchDefense(1.e4e62.d4d53.Nc3Bb44.e5c55.a3Bxc3+6.bxc3),WhitewilltrytousehisbishoppairandspaceadvantagetomountanattackonBlack'skingside,whileBlackwillseeksimplifyingexchanges(inparticular,tradingoffoneofWhite'sbishopstobluntthisadvantage)andcounterattackagainsttheweakenedpawnsonWhite'squeensidebothplayersacceptdifferentcombinationsofadvantagesanddisadvantages.ThisideawasadoctrineoftheSovietschoolofchess.

    Athirdobjective,whichiscomplementarytothepreviousonesandhasbeencommonsincethe19thcentury,istoluretheopponentintopositionswithwhichtheplayerismorefamiliarandcomfortablethantheopponent.Thisisusuallydonebytranspositions,inwhichagamethatapparentlystartswithoneopeningcanreachapositionthatisnormallyproducedbyadifferentopening.[6][7]

    Openingrepertoires

    Mostplayersrealizeafterawhilethattheyplaycertaintypesofpositionsbetterthanothers,andthattheamountoftheorytheycanlearnislimited.Therefore,mostplayersspecializeincertainopeningswheretheyknowthetheoryandwhichleadtopositionswhichtheyfavor.Thesetofopeningsaplayerhasspecializediniscalledanopeningrepertoire.Themainelementsaplayerneedstoconsiderinarepertoireare:

    AsWhite,whethertoopenwith1.e4,1.d4,1.c4,or1.Nf3AsBlack,adefenseagainstanyoftheseopenings

    Averynarrowrepertoireallowsfordeeperspecializationbutalsomakesaplayerlessflexibletovaryagainstdifferentopponents.Inaddition,opponentsmayfinditeasiertoprepareagainstaplayerwithanarrowrepertoire.[9]

    Themainopeningsinarepertoireareusuallyreasonablysound,thatis,theyshouldleadtoplayablepositionsevenagainstoptimalcounterplay.Unsoundgambitsaresometimesusedassurpriseweapons,butareunreliableforastablerepertoire.Repertoiresoftenchangeasaplayerdevelops,andaplayer'sadvancementmaybestiflediftheopeningrepertoiredoesnotevolve.Someopeningswhichareeffectiveagainstamateurplayersarelesseffectiveatthemasterlevel.ForexampleBlackobtainsactiveplayin

  • 31/07/2015 ChessopeningWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_opening 4/20

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    ThePerenyiAttack,whicharisesfromtheopeningmoves1.e4c52.Nf3d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3a66.Be3e67.g4e58.Nf5g69.g5gxf510.exf5d511.Qf3d4.Playedseveraltimesbetweengrandmasters,butLarsBoHansendoesnotrecommendthistoamateurs.

    returnforapawnintheBenkoGambitamateurplayersmayhavetroubledefendingagainstBlack'sactivity,whilemastersaremoreskilledatdefendingandmakinguseoftheextrapawn.Someopeningswhichareplayedbetweengrandmastersaresocomplexandtheoreticalthatamateurplayerswillhavetroubleunderstandingthem.AnexampleisthePerenyiAttackoftheSicilianDefense(seediagram)whichyieldsanimmenselycomplicatedandtacticalpositionthatevenstrongplayershavedifficultyhandling,andthatisbeyondthecomprehensionofmostamateurs.[3]

    Openingnomenclature

    Majorchangesintherulesofchessinthelatefifteenthcenturyincreasedthespeedofthegame,consequentlyemphasizingtheimportanceofopeningstudy.Thus,earlychessbooks,suchasthe1497textofLuisRamirezdeLucena,presentopeninganalysis,asdoesPedroDamiano(1512),andRuyLpezdeSegura(1561).RuyLopez'sdisagreementwithDamianoregardingthemeritsof2...Nc6ledto3.Bb5(after1.e4e52.Nf3Nc6)beingnamedforhimastheRuyLopezorSpanishOpening.[10]Openingtheorywasstudiedmorescientificallyfromthe1840son,andmanyopeningvariationswerediscoveredandnamedinthisperiodandlater.Openingnomenclaturedevelopedhaphazardly,andmostnamesarehistoricalaccidentsnotbasedonsystematicprinciples.

    Theoldestopeningstend