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Chapter 3.1 The Road to the Constitution Slide 2 Constitution Nations most important document Nations most important document Written in 1787 Written in 1787 Slide 3 Road to the Constitution May 25, 1787- Constitutional Convention May 25, 1787- Constitutional Convention 55 men met in Philadelphia, PA 55 men met in Philadelphia, PA 2 became presidents 2 became presidents 7 Had been Governor of their states 7 Had been Governor of their states 8 signed The Declaration of Independence 8 signed The Declaration of Independence 19 became Senators 19 became Senators 13 became Representatives 13 became Representatives 4 became federal judges 4 became federal judges 4 became Supreme Court justices 4 became Supreme Court justices The oldest delegate was Benjamin Franklin of PA, he was 81 The oldest delegate was Benjamin Franklin of PA, he was 81 Slide 4 Road to the Constitution George Washington presided over the convention George Washington presided over the convention His first action was to appoint a committee to set rules for the convention His first action was to appoint a committee to set rules for the convention Slide 5 Operating Procedures Meetings could not be held unless delegates from 7 states were present Meetings could not be held unless delegates from 7 states were present Decisions were to be made by majorities, with each state having only one vote Decisions were to be made by majorities, with each state having only one vote Slide 6 Operating Procedures Meetings were kept private Meetings were kept private Delegates were to revise the Articles of Confederation Delegates were to revise the Articles of Confederation Delegates soon realized the Articles needed to be discarded Delegates soon realized the Articles needed to be discarded Slide 7 Need for a New Constitution The delegates sought to create a new plan for government The delegates sought to create a new plan for government Thus, the meeting came to be known as the Constitutional Convention Thus, the meeting came to be known as the Constitutional Convention Slide 8 Chapter 3.2 Creating and Ratifying the Constitution Slide 9 Two Opposing Plans Virginia Plan- designed by James Madison and the Virginia delegates Virginia Plan- designed by James Madison and the Virginia delegates Slide 10 Virginia Plan Called for 3 branches of government Called for 3 branches of government Legislative branch- lawmakers Legislative branch- lawmakers Divided into 2 houses Divided into 2 houses Representation based on population Representation based on population Executive branch- carried out laws Executive branch- carried out laws Judicial branch- system of courts to interpret laws Judicial branch- system of courts to interpret laws Slide 11 Virginia Plan Appealed to larger states, but feared by smaller states Appealed to larger states, but feared by smaller states Slide 12 New Jersey Plan Designed by William Paterson of NJ Designed by William Paterson of NJ Slide 13 New Jersey Plan Called for 3 branches of government Called for 3 branches of government Legislative, executive, and judicial Legislative, executive, and judicial Legislature- made of only 1 house with each state getting 1 vote Legislature- made of only 1 house with each state getting 1 vote Slide 14 New Jersey Plan Smaller states approved this plan, however, larger states did not. Smaller states approved this plan, however, larger states did not. Slide 15 Compromises Roger Sherman led a committee that proposed the Great Compromise. Roger Sherman led a committee that proposed the Great Compromise. It proposed that Congress would be divided into 2 houses- a Senate and House of Representatives It proposed that Congress would be divided into 2 houses- a Senate and House of Representatives House representation would be based on population House representation would be based on population Each state would have equal representation in the Senate Each state would have equal representation in the Senate Slide 16 Compromises At the time of the Constitutional Convention, more than 550,000 African American were enslaved. At the time of the Constitutional Convention, more than 550,000 African American were enslaved. South wanted to count slaves as part of the population, the north did not South wanted to count slaves as part of the population, the north did not Slide 17 Compromises Three-Fifths Compromise- every 5 enslaved people would count as 3 free people Three-Fifths Compromise- every 5 enslaved people would count as 3 free people Used to figure representation in House and in figuring taxes Used to figure representation in House and in figuring taxes Slide 18 Compromises Northern states- congress should be able to regulate foreign commerce and trade between the states Northern states- congress should be able to regulate foreign commerce and trade between the states Slide 19 Compromises Southern states- feared Congress would use this power to tax exports Southern states- feared Congress would use this power to tax exports This would hurt the southern economy because it depended heavily on exports of tobacco and rice This would hurt the southern economy because it depended heavily on exports of tobacco and rice Slide 20 Compromises As a result, southern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between the states and other countries. As a result, southern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between the states and other countries. Northern states agreed not to tax exports and not to interfere with slave trade before 1808. Northern states agreed not to tax exports and not to interfere with slave trade before 1808. Slide 21 The President Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others believed all of the people should decide. Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others believed all of the people should decide. Electoral College- group of people named by each state to select the president Electoral College- group of people named by each state to select the president Slide 22 The President All people from each state would vote. All people from each state would vote. Each state was given a certain number of Electoral votes based off of its population. Each state was given a certain number of Electoral votes based off of its population. Which ever candidate won the majority of votes from that state would receive all of that states Electoral votes! Which ever candidate won the majority of votes from that state would receive all of that states Electoral votes! This is referred to a Winner Take All System This is referred to a Winner Take All System Slide 23 Electoral Votes by State Slide 24 Approving the Constitution On September 17, 1787, delegates at the Constitutional Convention met for the last time. On September 17, 1787, delegates at the Constitutional Convention met for the last time. Delegates decided that when 9 of 13 states had ratified it, the Constitution would become supreme law of the land. Delegates decided that when 9 of 13 states had ratified it, the Constitution would become supreme law of the land. Slide 25 Slide 26 Divided Public Americans reacted to the Constitution in different ways Americans reacted to the Constitution in different ways One group called themselves the Federalists One group called themselves the Federalists Slide 27 Federalists They chose this name to emphasize that the Constitution would create a system of federalism They chose this name to emphasize that the Constitution would create a system of federalism Federalism- form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments Federalism- form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments Slide 28 Anti-federalists Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution They felt it gave too much power to the national government and took too much away from the states They felt it gave too much power to the national government and took too much away from the states Slide 29 Reaching Agreement June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the Constitution June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the Constitution Rhode Island was the last to do so in 1790 Rhode Island was the last to do so in 1790 Slide 30 United States The 13 independent states were now one nation, the United States of America. The 13 independent states were now one nation, the United States of America. Slide 31 Chapter 3.3 The Structure of the Constitution Slide 32 Constitution Highest authority in the nation Highest authority in the nation Basic law of the U.S. Basic law of the U.S. Gives all branches of government their powers Gives all branches of government their powers Slide 33 Constitution 3 main parts 3 main parts Preamble- introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government Preamble- introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government 7 articles- describe the structure of the government 7 articles- describe the structure of the government 27 amendments- additions or changes to the Constitution 27 amendments- additions or changes to the Constitution Slide 34 Preamble 6 purposes of the government (p.61) 6 purposes of the government (p.61) Slide 35 Preamble 1-form a more perfect Union 1-form a more perfect Union Unite the states so they can operate as a single nation. Unite the states so they can operate as a single nation. Slide 36 Preamble 2- establish justice 2- establish justice Create fair laws for equal treatment of citizens Create fair laws for equal treatment of citizens Slide 37 Preamble 3- insure domestic tranquility 3- insure domestic tranquility Maintain peace and order Maintain peace and order Slide 38 Preamble 4- provide for the common defense 4- provide for the common defense Ready militarily to protect the country Ready militarily to protect the country Slide 39 Preamble 5- prom

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