Chapter 24 Section 1 and 2 Pages 713-722 Italian & German Unification

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter 24 Section 1 and 2 Pages 713-722 Italian &amp; German Unification </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Bonds of a Nation-State BondDefinitionUS example Nationality Language Culture History Religion Territory </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Nationalism What is nationalism? The belief that the greatest loyalty should be to a nation of people who share a common culture &amp; history Nationalism that unifies culturally similar lands and people Nationalism that separates culturally different lands and people </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Italy </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Middle Ages: competing city-states 1. Why wasnt Italy united before 1850? </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Congress of Vienna (1815): reorganized provinces 1. Why wasnt Italy united before 1850? 2. Metternich believed wanted to maintain old Europe (pre- Napoleon) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Congress of Vienna ignored national groups, placing groups under the control of large empires with different ethnicities Italy is split into 3 separate groups 1.Northern Italy was under Austrian rule 2.Other parts under French Rule 3.Another part under Hapsburgs Rule </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Key Events Early 1860: unification of N Italy Late 1860: unification of N &amp; S 1866: Venice added 1870: Rome added </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Soul: Mazzini (1805-1872) Giuseppe Mazzini was a popular writer whose goal was to unite Italy Launched a group call Young Italy Was exiled for his outspoken nationalism Smuggled patriotic pamphlets into Italy Believe that Europe need to redraw the lines Attracted tens of thousands to Italian Unification cause </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The Soul: Mazzini (1805-1872) The Duties of Man: O my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, the house that God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love The Idealist Patriot </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Uprising and Revolutions Mazzini had help Italians realize their destiny Nationalist inspired revolutions began to pop up on Italy Northern State of Piedmont declared war on Austria Lost after 1 year with Piedmont defeats Northern States are not liberated from Austrian Empire Revolutionaries seized Rome Set up a Republic that Mazzini and 2 others governed French troops would help the pope regain control Sardinia was the only successful revolt Revolutionaries forced rulers of Sardinia to adopt a new constitution and remain independent Revolutionary failures do not weaken Nationalist movement </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Cavour express nationalist movement is still strong enough t0 unite Italy even with difference Goal is to unite Italy Becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia Builds Sardinia Economy Believes that all of Italys Economy must thrive Achieves in gaining a power ally in France Noble Statesman in Sardinian Government, 1850-1861 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Supports France in war with Russia. In return France gives Sardinia providence of Savoy and Nice France also will support Sardinia in a war with Austria. By 1860 the Northern Italian States w/o Venetia were liberated from Austrian control and united </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882) Goal was to Unify Italy Lived in exile in S. America were he learn Guerilla warfare Helped in defeating Austria in North Unification Led RED SHIRTS, his army of 1000 soldiers towards the South and the Kingdom of the 2 Sicily Conquered island of Sicily then head towards Naples Military Leader </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882) The North and South are conquered and united Only Venetia and Papal States not unified Austria controls Venetia Austria and Prussia go to war Italians side with Prussia Prussians win and give Italians Venetia France and Prussia go to war France pulls out of Rome(Papal States) Unification is complete. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Government: Divisions between: parliamentary monarchy (King Victor Emmanuel ) Limited suffrage (most adult males) Limited working hours No Child Labor Improved cities and industry social classes (rich/poor) New taxes led to poverty/unemployment huge numbers emigrating to America (4.5M) regions (N/S) South resented being ruled by Rome Catholic Church would not let Catholics vote out of resentment 5. What did the new, unified Italy look like? </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> GROG 24.1 Identify Cause and Effect Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by listing causes and effects of Italian unification and by indicating which effects were positive and which were negative 5 Points </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Germany (1871) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Bell Ringer 24.2 Monarchy 1 ruler to make decisions Republic- public votes Suppose you are Giuseppe Garibaldi. Write a letter to Camillo di Cavour, explaining why you believe a unified Italy would be better off as a republic than a monarchy (5 Points) </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Entities: Holy Roman Empire loose affiliation of 300 German states </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> German Confederation loose affiliation of 39 German states 1815-1866 replaced HRE purpose: military defense All have common language and culture </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> People: Frederick William IV Steps towards unification King of Prussia (r. 1840-1861) 1848: revolution Agrees new liberal constitution Agrees Prussian-led German unification Promises reforms to increase individual rights The people are ready to unite Once all had settled down he went back on his promises </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Zollverein Steps towards unification German customs union founded in 1834 to economy Allowed for removal of tariffs amongst German States Business people would want unification Railroads to connects states Prussia = leader included all German states but Austria b/c Austria did not want to tariffs </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Otto von Bismarck Prussian Prime Minister (r. 1861-1888) Philosophy Practiced REALPOLITIK practical government not idealistic Practical goals not make believe Conservative who did not believe in revolutions believed it was Prussias destiny to unite Germany </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Otto von Bismarck led German unification Increased size of military Unification could not be done with speeches but with Blood and Iron War and Industry Parliament will not agree to raise taxes to fund this Bismarck dismisses Parliament and collects taxes on his own Builds Prussian Army into great war machine to unite Germany </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Bismarck's 1 st War Prussia believes that Schleswig and Holstein should be controlled by German Confederation Disagreement over control of Schleswig and Holstein was a way to Start a war with Denmark Prussia forms and alliance with Austria to defeat Denmark Prussia would control Schleswig Austria would control Holstein Do you see an issue with this? </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Austria Austria vs. Prussia over control of German affairs Austria opposes Prussias 1848 unification attempt Austria refuses Zollverein membership Austro-Prussian War (1866) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Bismarck lays the ground work for war Bismarck met with the Italian minister If Italy support Prussia in war with Austria that Italy could have Venetia Bismarck meets with Napoleon III (France) France will remain neutral if war breaks out Bismarck provokes Austria into war by putting troops in Holstein Austria declares war on Prussia Prussia blames Austria for starting war Uses nationalism for support of war </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Austro-Prussian War (1866) Outcome: Prussian victory Austria withdraws ***creation of North German Confederation*** Only 3 southern states remained un-unified North German Confederation </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Cause: drive south German states to unify with the north France = common enemy Alsace and Lorraine Mostly Germans controlled by France Outcome: Prussian victory ***German unification achieved*** German nationalism German Empire / Second Reich (1871-1918) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> What did the new, unified Germany look like? 25 states parliamentary monarchy strong national government: Power shared between states and Federal Government (US) emperor (Kaiser) Wilhelm I Chancellor Bismarck 2-house parliament Reichstag = lower house (universal male suffrage) Men over age of 25 (reality is there were many restrictions) Germany would become a new powerful empire </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Church Economics Bismarck passed laws limiting the catholic churches power and influence (HRE) Kulturekampf Struggle for culture France paid Germany reparations for Franco- Prussian War Germany used money to build railroads to link states Germany quickly caught up with Europe in Industrialization Ch Ch Ch Changes </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Social Reforms Industry has its critics Socialist believe Industry have harsh conditions State should control Industry Socialist are blamed for 2 attempts of assassination on emperor Bismarck will try to destroy socialism Sought to destroy it appeal to German people by enacting its his reforms He pushed legislation to provide benefits for health, accidents, old age, and disability </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Bismarck and Wilhelm II Bismarck was not interested in furthering Germanys border He see France as a continued threat Bismarck would secure alliances with Austria-Hungry, Italy and Russia to protect each other from attack Wilhelm I grandson, Wilhelm II becomes Kaiser After a disagreement Wilhelm II will fire Bismarck Wilhelm II will continue to make alliances and build up the most powerful military forces in Europe </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Using your notes, fill in the graphic organizer by listing causes and effects of German unification GROG 24.2 5 Points </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> CHAPTER 24 SEC 3 PAGES 723-272 Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Bell Ringer 24.3 5 Points Imagine you are a reporter and are about to interview Otto von Bismarck. Write three short questions you will ask him about German unification and answer them how you feel that he would answer them. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> At the beginning of the 1800s, the Hapsburg family had controlled much of the region for nearly four centuries. But this powerful empire would not remain intact through the remainder of the 1800s. Austrian emperor, Foreign Minister Metternich tried to maintain power of monarchy, empire Metternich accused universities of creating revolutionaries Resistance to Change Metternich called meeting of Confederation, passed Carlsbad Decrees Prohibited any reforms that conflicted with absolute monarchy Carlsbad Decrees Decrees established censorship of newspapers Created secret police to spy on students suspected of revolutionary activities Other Prohibitions The Austrian Empire </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Resistance to Change Metternich not only created restrictive laws for empire Formed alliances with other European powers trying to prevent nationalist revolutions Congress of Troppau, 1820 Called by Metternich, leaders of other powers Leaders agreed to provide military intervention to support governments against internal revolution </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Revolution Demonstrators, army clashed in streets of Vienna Frightened emperor Ferdinand ordered Metternich to resign Metternich fled Austria 1848, Ferdinand abdicated, throne went to nephew, Franz Josef I Turmoil in Europe, Austria Metternich able to protect power of Austrian Empire for few years Events in Europe, changes in empire eventually caught up with him Revolutions in France, Italy, German states set off revolts in Austrian Empire; people with different nationalities wanted independence </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Resistance to Change During long reign, Franz Josef I ruled over unstable empire 1848, Hungarian Magyars rebelled against Austrian rule Almost won independence Czar Nicholas I of Russia sent troops to help Austria crush revolt Franz Josef I abolished liberal reforms of 1848, but could not stamp out nationalism Revoked new constitution, stopped revolution temporarily </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Franz Josef I could not stop the nationalist movement. Change came in the form of the Dual Monarchy. As nationalist movement continued in Europe, Austria lost Lombardy to Italy, 1859 1866, Austrias defeat by Prussia brought new demands from Hungarians Franz Josef I, Hungarian nationalist movement leaders reached agreement, Compromise of 1867 Forming a New Government Created dual monarchy of Austria- Hungary Austria, Hungary became two separate, equal states with one ruler, Franz Josef I Rulers title: emperor of Austria, king of Hungary Each had own parliament, shared ministries of war, finance, foreign affairs Compromise of 1867 The Dual Monarchy </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Unrest in empire did not go away; divisions remained among various nationalities Austrian Germans, Hungarian Magyars did not speak same language Ethnic minorities received little benefit from Dual Monarchy, continued to seek self- government Unrest Dual Monarchy lasted about 50 years, until 1918 Eased pressure for nationalism; also had economic advantages Rural, agricultural Hungary could provide raw materials, food Industrialized Austria could provide industrial products Rural and Industrial An Uneven Solution </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Multi Ethnic Groups= Many nationalisms </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Like Austrian Empire, Ottoman Empire existed for centuries, controlled vast multiethnic territory Within borders many different religious, ethnic groupsGreeks, Bulgarians, Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Jews Empire in decline since late 1600s, could not survive changes of 1800s Early 1800s, Ottoman Empire could not defend self against independence movement, external threats 1830, Greece had gained independence; Russia controlled Caucasus; Serbia self-ruled Empire in Decline Situation created Eastern Questionwhat would happen if Ottoman Empire collapsed? Russia wanted Constantinople, access to Mediterranean French, British aided Ottoman Empire, held Russia off The Eastern Question The Ottoman Empire </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Holy Land Ottomans, Europeans had dispute over Holy Land Ottomans gave Roman Catholics control of Palestine holy places Great Britain, France Great Britain saw Russia as potential threat to India interest Allied with France Both joined Ottoman Empire in war against Russia Russian Invasion Ottomans denied Orthodox Christians same rights Russians invaded Ottoman territories Stalemate Crimean War ended in stalemate, caused half million deaths Nurse Florence Nightingale saved many lives threatened by disease and over crowding in field hospitals during war The Cri...</li></ul>