chapter 13 motivating employees to improve job performance

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Chapter 13 Motivating Employees To Improve Job Performance

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Motivation: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
Alternative Definition:
Motivation: is an inner drive that directs individuals behavior towards goals.
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Individual motivational factors (Needs, satisfaction, expectations, goals)
Individual ability to get the job done
(Depends on availability of resources and capability of employees)
Its a waste of time trying to motivate workers if they don’t have tools and capabilities.
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Some situations don’t make it easy to motivate people
Situational factors that help motivate - see below
Challenging and interesting work
Desired rewards
(continued)
For Discussion: Which of these factors has overriding importance in your worklife? Why?
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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY
“Maslow’s message was simply this: people always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence to take its place.”
(Preponent need is most motivating)
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(continued)
Esteem needs (Self-respect; self-confidence)
Physiological needs (Life-sustaining needs)
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Source: Data for diagram drawn from A. H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review, 50 (July 1943): 370-396.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY
(continued)
For Discussion: Which level of needs primarily drives you at this point in your life? Explain.
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(Satisfaction = Motivation)
“The elimination of dissatisfaction is not the same as truly motivating an employee. To satisfy and motivate employees, an additional element is required: meaningful, interesting, and challenging work.”
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(Satisfaction = Motivation)
( Money, fellow workers, superiors, etc.)
Satisfiers come from job content or the work itself
Achievement
Recognition
(Satisfaction = Motivation)
For Discussion:
1. Describe the worst job you ever had. What roles did Herzberg’s dissatisfiers and satisfiers play?
2. Describe the best job you ever had. What roles did Herzberg’s dissatisfiers and satisfiers play?
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Expectancy theory: assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success.
Expectancy: one’s belief or expectation that one thing will lead to another.
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1. Perceived effort-performance probability (expectancy) - You have the tools and are capable
2. Perceived value of rewards. (valence) - You value the reward
3. Perceived performance-reward probability (instrumentality) - oragnziation recognizes you’re doing a good job and gives you reward
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Expectancy Equation
Expectancy Probability X’s Instrumentality Probability X’s Valence of Reward = Motivational Force
For example
Expectacy Ranges from 0.0 to 1.0
Instrumentality Ranges from 0.0 to 1.0
Valence or Value of reward can be some number like plus or minus 10 where plus 10 is best reward you can think of and -10 is worst punishment you can think of.
Another way to get people motivated is found in
GOAL-SETTING THEORY
Goal setting: process of improving individual or group job performance with formally stated objectives, deadlines, or quality standards.
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Specific
Difficult
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GOAL-SETTING THEORY
For Discussion:
Goal-setting to “just do your best.” How do you interpret this advise in light of the model in?
How do you use goals to improve your performance at school, at work, in sports, or elsewhere? (Give a specific goal you have on grades; on teams.?
researchers say it is a mistake to tell someone
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Chapter Outline
Strategy One: Fitting People to Jobs
Strategy Two: Fitting Jobs to People
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Job design: creating task responsibilities based upon strategy, technology, and structure.
Your limited as to how you can design a job by the organization’s strategy.
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JOB DESIGN - LIMITS
Technology may require more or less expertise - or may cause you to have to survive in a bad environment (oil rig)
Organizational structure can effect job design (large sales territory sparsely settled territory, makes you travel a lot.)
JOB DESIGN
Strategy One: Fitting People to Jobs
Realistic job previews (you have to fit this job even when its bad)
Job rotation
Limited exposure
Contingent time off: rewarding people with early time off when they get the job done.
( Productivity & quality often go up - people can earn time off.)
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Strategy Two: Fitting Jobs to People
Job enlargement: combining two or more specialized tasks to increase motivation. (Also called horizontal job loading.)
Job enrichment: redesigning jobs to increase their motivating potential. (Also called vertical job loading.)
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(continued)
For Discussion: Describe your present (or past) job and explain how it could be horizontally or vertically loaded.
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Comprehensive rebuilding of jobs using the Job Characteristics model.
Core Job Characteristics
of the work
work
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(continued)
Team Exercise: Brainstorm the “perfect job” a person could have and describe it in terms of the core job characteristics and critical psychological states. (Note: You can build upon a job you have heard about or create an entirely new job.)
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Rewards: the material and psychological payoffs for working.
Extrinsic rewards: payoffs granted to the individual by other people (e.g., money, benefits, recognition, praise).
Intrinsic rewards: self-granted and internally experienced payoffs (e.g., a sense of accomplishment).
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(continued)
Team Competition: Brainstorm a list of as many workplace extrinsic rewards as possible in ten minutes.
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(continued)
For Discussion: Describe a situation in which you got an intrinsic reward from working. What can managers do to foster situations like that?
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What you pick changes as your stages of life change.
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For Discussion:
1. From a managerial standpoint, which type of pay plan is best? Why?
2. Which pay plan would you prefer? Why?
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Quality Control Circles
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Participative management: the process of empowering employees to assume greater control of the workplace.
Quality control circles: voluntary problem-solving groups committed to improving quality and reducing costs.
Self-managed teams: high-performance teams that assume traditional managerial duties such as staffing and planning.
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good job security.
group cohesiveness.
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(continued)
For Discussion: Are these four factors “a package deal,” meaning could one or two missing factors ruin a participative management program?
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Flexible Work Schedules
Family Support Services
Give them tools and training (HRM, good Mgmt)
Have good evaluation system
Be equitable (Equity theory:
Design jobs well ( i.e. job characteristic model)
Individual Motivation and Job Performance