canada in the 1960’s and 1970’s
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DESCRIPTIONCanada in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The 1960’s was a decade of concentrated social change. Social movements of the 1960’s included: Women’s liberation Civil rights Free love Peace - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The 1960s was a decade of concentrated social change. Social movements of the 1960s included: Womens liberation Civil rightsFree lovePeace
All of these movements shared a desire for the liberation of the individual. They created a counter-culture of youth and freedom, that questioned the status quo of the establishment
I have a dream
In the early 60s Canada produced the worlds leading philosopher of communications Marshal McLuhan. He observed that electronic media was becoming more important than print. He was made famous by the phrase The medium is the message. and said that the new types of media would ultimately create a global village. He theorized that distinctive national identities would dissolve as the distances created by geography, succumbing to the instant communication provided by new technology.The 1960s certainly marked huge changes in the ways in which Canadians perceived themselves. We obtained a new national symbol, we instated the official languages Act and we experienced a huge shift in our national morality
In 1964 Canadians were involved in an argument over the Canadian flag, many were attached to the British Union Flag However people who viewed themselves as Canadian, and not British, did not care for it. In 1963 Prime Minister Lester Pearson unveiled his idea for a new flag and by 1965, we had a brand new flag
Awesome Canada Beaver of Amazingness
In the early and mid-60s, the desire for freedom was expressed in long hair, casual dress, and loud rock and rollThe decade progressed into protest marches on behalf of peace, and the civil rights movementThe new philosophy set individuals above the authority of groups and what by many were considered outdated moral standardsGovernment was seen by many as the accomplice of business, instead of the protector of citizens and the environment
Women were ready for liberationA dependable birth control pill, introduced in the early 1960s made it possible for women to delay or avoid having children. This in turn made it possible for more women to compete with men in the business world.Womens groups campaigned for equal rights, equal opportunities in the job market and an end to discrimination based on sex. Prime Minister Pearson set up of Royal Commission on the status of women, that was actually led by a woman, the first federal commission ever to be chaired by a woman.
In 1963 Prime Minister Pearson appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. The report found that Quebecois were alienated from the rest of Canada, partially because the French language was not considered equal to English throughout the country.When Pierre Trudeau Became Prime Minister in 1968, he passed the Official Languages Act in 1969, this gave equal status to English and French officially making Canada a bilingual country.
More than any other Canadian province, Qubec changed rapidly during the 1960s.These changes were so profound that this period is known in Qubec as the Revolution Tranquille or the Quiet Revolution. The period is called this because though the changes were radical, they were achieved with out violence.
Economy: the Quiet Revolution sought to establish a stronger French presence in the economy of Qubec.Social Services: They wanted to ensure they had the same standard of social services as other provincesEducation: taken from the churches and turned over to a provincial system.More Autonomy: Qubec wanted co-operative federalismUnfortunately none of these steps would help Canada avoid the crisis between Qubec and the rest of Canada that would occur during the October Crisis, brought on by the actions of the FLQ
On October 5, 1970 members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross the British trade commissioner from his home. The FLQ sent messages to the media saying that, they would kill Cross unless the government released 23 people who were in prison for terrorist acts.As a concession to the kidnappers the government allowed the FLQ manifesto to be broadcast publicly.The manifesto argued that in Quebec the English minority held all positions of power and influence, while the French majority was disadvantaged.Although they disagreed with the FLQs tactics,many people agreed with its analysis of the situation in Quebec
The Quebec government refused to release any prisoners. Instead it offered to allow the kidnappers safe passage to another country if they released Cross.Minutes after the government made this announcement another cell of the FLQ abducted Pierre Laporte, the Quebec minister of labor, while he was playing on his lawn with his children.Laporte sent the government a letter pleading for his life. CBC report of Laportes letter
On 16 October,the federal government stated that because of a state of apprehended insurrection in Quebec, it was invoking the War Measures Act.This gives the authorities the power to arrest without warrant anyone suspected of being connected to the FLQ.Over the next few days, hundreds of people were jailed. (In the end, only 20 people were actually convicted of any crime.) Prime Minister Trudeau justifies the War Measures Act
Trudeau Speaks about the FLQ Crisis
Pierre Laportes body was discovered in the trunk of a car.Police found Cross, who was released after 59 days.In exchange for his release, five kidnappers received safe passage to Cuba.Four men were arrested Paul Rose, his brother Jacques, Francis Simard, and Bernard Lortie and convicted of Pierre Laportes murderIn January 1971 the army withdrew from Quebec.
Although the FLQ failed in its purpose to cause Qubec to separate, the desire to separate remains strong in some segments of Quebec society.The divisions between French and English in Canada continues todayThis can be seen in the Bloc Quebec one of the most powerful political parties in Canada today.
Non = No Oui = YesFor those that speak no French, like myself.