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  • Injection mouldable biomaterials for

    recyclable furniture

    BIOMATERIALS Towards Industrial Applications

    22.5.2013 Startup Sauna, Otaniemi

    Heidi Peltola

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

  • 223/05/2013

    Contents

    Drivers for biopolymers and fibre composites

    Definitions

    Biocomposite research at VTT

    Biopolymer research

    Cellulosic fibre research

    Processing and process development

    Commercial biocomposite compounds for

    injection moulding

    Case Ekokeitti Puustelli Miinus

  • 323/05/2013

    Drivers for biopolymers and fibre composites

    Alternative for non-renewable based polymers and composites

    Closed CO2-cycle

    New environmental laws and regulations, European strategic research

    programs

    Price increase in petrochemical based polymers (-> need for cheap fillers

    and renewable or bio-based polymers)

    Increasing demand and customer interest of bio-based materials

    increasing production -> decreasing price

    Research activity of WPC and bio-based composites is increasing

    property development towards engineering materials, new grades of

    materials

    Image, natural look and feeling

    Biodegradable and non-biodegradable

    Increasing help and interest in industry by creating new recycling

    possibilities for bio-based materials helps to adapt these materials in use

    Packaging industry is moving from cost cutting towards renewable materials

    Safer and lower weight materials (smaller fuel consumption) for

    transportation

    About 20% yearly increase in market (NFC&WPC)

  • 423/05/2013

    B

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    N

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    -

    b

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    d

    e

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    Renewable polymers

    Petrochemical based polymers

    Injection mouldable

    Biocomposites

    WPC Wood Plastic Composites

    Green Composites Bio-based composites

    Natural CompositesNFC Natural Fibre Composites

    NRPC Naturally Reinforced Plastic Composites

    Renewable PE

    Renewable PET

    Renewable PA

    Renewable PU

    PLA, PHA (PHB)

    Lignin

    Starch, cellulose and

    protein derivatives

    PCL

    PVA

    PBS

    PE, PP

    PS, PVC

    PET, PA, PC

    = Natural/renewable fibre +

  • 523/05/2013

    Biocomposite research at VTT

    Polymers Commercial polymers:

    PE, PP, PLA, PCL, PHB etc.

    Biopolymer blends

    Biopolymers developed by

    research centers and companies

    Natural fibresDifferent fibre types and shapes:

    wood, flax, hemp, cotton etc.

    Industrial minor flows

    Nanofibres

    Fibre treatments

    Additives Commercial additives

    Nanoparticles

    Additives developed

    by research centers

    and companies

    Processing

    & Process

    Development

    Development of

    business operations and value chains

  • 623/05/2013

    Biopolymer research at VTT

    Polymers from biomass

    Cellulose derivatives

    Starch derivatives

    Lignin derivatives

    Hemicellulose derivatives

    Protein derivatives

    Chemically synthesized

    bio/degradable polymers

    Polyesters

    (succinates, lactones..)

    Synthesized from

    biobased

    monomers

    Tall / Vegetable oil based

    PGA

    Polymers from C2-C6

    PLA applications

    New co-polymers

  • 723/05/2013

    Cellulosic fibre research for biocomposites

    Additives

    Fibre

    fractionation

    Pelletising

    Physical

    treatments

    Chemical

    treatments Plasticising

    Enzymatic

    treatments

    Chemo-

    enzymatic

    treatmentsCellulosic fibres

    as reinforcement

    Better

    fibre/matrix

    adhesion Better fibre

    dispersion

    Better

    processability

    Improved

    compatibility

    Optimised

    fibre aspect

    ratio

    I m p r o v e d m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r c o m p o s i t e s

  • 823/05/2013

    Fibre dimensions, dispersion and distribution:

    Determined by process parameters, methods, melt viscosity and pre-processing

    Parameter combination >15

    Nttinen et al. Mech. of Time-Depend Mat, 16, 2012,

    47-70.

    Peltola et al. Plastics, Rubber and Composites:

    Macromol, 40 (2011) 86-92

    Peltola et al. Journal of Materials Science and

    Engineering. Vol. 1 (2011) No: 2 , 190-198

    Nttinen et al. Journal of Composite

    Materials Vol. 45 (2011) No: 20, 2119-2131

    Screw geometry

    Processing steps

    and methods

    Viscosity & shear

    Orientation

    Processing and process development

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    0.100.20

    0.300.40

    0.50

    05

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    Young's

    modulu

    s (

    GP

    a)

    Fiber weight fraction

    Pla

    stic

    izer co

    nte

    nt (%

    )

    Correlation between

    composite strength,

    fibre content, and

    plastisizer content

  • 923/05/2013

    Commercial biocomposite compounds for injection moulding

    UPM ForMi cellulose fibre reinforced plastic

    composite with high (up to 50%) renewable material

    content, specially designed for injection moulding

    applications

    Kareline - natural fibre reinforced composite

    granulates available based on PP, ABS, PS, POM

    and PLA matrix, excellent for injection moulding and

    extrusion

    Tecnaro Arboform - made from 100% renewable

    materials (lignin, natural fibres and additives) and is

    mainly used for injection moulded wood applications

    Beologic Recyclable, ready-to-use compounds

    filled with 25 up to 85% of wood fibres in PVC, PP,

    HDPE or PLA matrix

    Among others!

    ISKU Prima chair, seat

    made from WPC

    http://www.iskuinterior.fi

  • 1023/05/2013

    Case Ekokeitti Puustelli Miinus

    Impact:

    Reduction of waste material using injection moulding instead of

    carpenter work

    New production method and material allows totally new frame structures

    and lower weight furnitures, lower weight components

    30-45% Reduction to carbon footprint compared to current materials

    (MDF or fibre boards)

    Reduced VOC emissions in new materials

    Possibility to use domestic industry in component manufacturing

    Biocomposites allows new joining techniques

    Developed by Puustelli Group Oy and Desigence Oy, with industrial

    designer, Professor Juhani Salovaara as the lead designer. UPM, VTT

    and the Wood Chemistry Laboratory of Aalto University, as well as a

    number of top specialist companies in the field, also made a large

    contribution to the technological design process.

    Additional information: Lisa Wikstrm or Kirsi Immonen

    New biocomposite based materials and solution for kitchen

    furnitures launched in 2013 by Puustelli Company

  • 1123/05/2013

    VTT creates business from technology