Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Paradigm

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This is for my Counseling 315 class.

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<p>Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral ParadigmJESSICA SALVADOR</p> <p>Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) </p> <p>The first form of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Was founded by Albert Ellis in 1955 </p> <p>Assumed that people contributed to their psychological problems based on how they viewed the issues that were happening in their lives Based on the concept that a causal relationship happens between behaviors, cognitions, and emotions We are what we think Reducing irrational beliefs by replacing them with more practical, effective beliefs ABCDE model</p> <p>Core of REBT: </p> <p>(Erford, 2010)</p> <p>Albert Ellis</p> <p>ABCDE model and A-B-C-Danalysis</p> <p>Developed for counselors to follow as they analyze their clients patterns of thought According to the ABCDE model, people experience undesirable activating events </p> <p>A is the activating event that initiates the faulty thinking pattern B is the clients belief system though which all life experiences are filtered C represents the emotional or behavioral consequence that is produced by the interaction of A and B D represents the disputing irrational beliefs E is where the client develops a new response</p> <p>(Erford, 2010)</p> <p>Procrastination: An Overview</p> <p>Comes from the Latin word, procrastinare</p> <p>to put off until the next day In essence, procrastination is a lack of self-management</p> <p>Often described as a thief of time</p> <p>Surveys suggest that 20% of the adult population is affected by chronic procrastination and occurs in 3 main areas: </p> <p>Personal maintenance Self-development Honoring commitments to others</p> <p>(Neenan, 2008)</p> <p>Procrastination: An Overview</p> <p>6 Procrastination styles:1.</p> <p>The perfectionist hesitant to initiate a task for fear of it being less than perfect, thus sees his/herself as a failure in their own or in others eyes.</p> <p>2.3. 4.</p> <p>The dreamer wants life to go smoothly and avoids difficult challengesThe worrier fears things are going wrong and is overwhelmed by events The defier resistant and defensive against others instructions and suggestions because this means s/he is being told what to do</p> <p>5.</p> <p>The crisis-maker likes to display bravado in declaring that s/he cant be motivtated until the last minute because this is when they do their best work.The over-doer takes on too much many tasks without prioritizing them</p> <p>6.</p> <p>(Neenan, 2008)</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective</p> <p>While research and theory on procrastination continues to grow, a common concern among researchers in the procrastination field is that the potential seriousness of procrastination is not as widely recognized as it should be (Pychyl &amp; Flett, 2012). Views procrastination not as time management failure, but as a weakness of will and as a form of self-regulation Lack of viewing procrastination as a serious issue is partly due to the fact that it is so widespread Seen as an extreme variant of a personality trait called conscientiousness (Pychyl &amp; Flett, 2012).</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective</p> <p>All us have a combination of the 6 procrastination styles. However, some are more prominently displayed than others. From the REBT perspective, underpinning these various procrastination styles there are likely to be found ego disturbance and discomfort disturbance beliefs (Neenan, 2008).</p> <p>Ego disturbance </p> <p>Found in perfectionists I must do the task very well or else Im a failure. Found in dreamers I shouldnt have to work hard to fulfil my dreams. I cant stand having to get my mind around all those boring details. I shouldnt have to struggle!</p> <p>Discomfort disturbance </p> <p>Clients can have both types</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective </p> <p>Procrastination is seen as an avoidance behavior According to Dryden and Gordon, the one thing all people who procrastinate have in commonis a clear-cut emotional problem (Neenan, 2008).</p> <p>In order to release this emotion, clients can face the situation through visualization and identify the beliefs maintaining their procrastination by using the ABCs of REBT</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective </p> <p>Dryden and Sabelus examine two versions of REBT, specific and general, in the treatment of academic procrastination Specific REBT</p> <p>Emphasizes the role played by extreme and rigid beliefs (aka irrational beliefs)Tantamount to CBT Focus on irrational and rational beliefs is not prominent</p> <p>General REBT </p> <p>Has equal weighing in theory and practice with other CBT concepts and methods</p> <p>(Dryden &amp; Sabelus, 2010)</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective</p> <p>Specific REBT</p> <p>The behavior is dependent upon certain conditions that the student insists needs to be present when it is, in reality, absent Ex: comfort, certainty that one will get a good grade and being in the mood to engage with the task</p> <p>This kind of irrational belief leads one to procrastinate</p> <p>Specific REBT targets these irrational beliefs and changes them to rational ones</p> <p>Ex: I would like to be in the mood to study, but I dont have to be in such a mood. I can begin to study when I am not in the mood</p> <p>Procrastination from the REBT perspective</p> <p>General REBT</p> <p>A scope of factors of procrastination are considered, but none are prioritized at the theoretical or practical level General REBT will consider the role of irrational beliefs in procrastination, but this will not be a dominant feature in the conceptualization or treatment of procrastination</p> <p>(Dryden &amp; Sabelus, 2010)</p> <p>Effectiveness of REBT in treating procrastination</p> <p>Pychyl and Flett state that although researchers have yet to know the extent to which treatment success can be achieved with procrastinators vs. non-procrastinators, there are countless of cases illustrating the success of implementing REBT and CBT interventions for procrastination. In a recent study of a cognitive-behavioral intervention, it was shown to be very effective in addressing the procrastination of those who were found to have high levels general procrastination and decisional procrastination The longitudinal assessment shows that the gains achieved were still maintained at follow-up.</p> <p>(Pychyl &amp; Flett, 2012).</p> <p>Effectiveness of REBT in treating procrastination</p> <p>In a paper written by Windy Dryden, he illustrates how procrastination is addressed via REBT He conceptualizes procrastination as avoidant behavior that is manifest at C in the ABC framework Emphasizes that procrastination creates a complicated situation for the therapist because when procrastination occurs and avoidance takes place, the procrastinator isnt faced with the A or with the feared negative emotions at C due to the procrastination itself Unless care is taken, the avoidance behavior of procrastinators may be involuntarily enhanced.</p> <p>(Pychyl &amp; Flett, 2012).</p> <p>Effectiveness of REBT in treating procrastination</p> <p>In a study down by McCrown et. al, they observed the thought differences of procrastinators and non-procrastinators based on a series of self-report and behavioral measures.</p> <p>Group comparisons found that procrastinators had more maladaptive thoughts in four areasselfdepreciation thoughts and feelings, other-depreciation, life condition depreciation, and frustration intolerance</p> <p>These data offer extensive support for REBT conceptualizations of procrastination, as well as stressing the several forms of maladaptive believes that highlight procrastination.</p> <p>(Pychyl &amp; Flett, 2012).</p> <p>Discussion and Conclusions</p> <p>Pychyl has argued that there is a lot to be gained from regarding procrastination as a decit in self-determination and in countering the issue</p> <p>This can be done by promoting a sense of personal responsibility among those who need to stop their negligent ways and become more conscientious in daily life</p> <p>Other work builds on the REBT of promoting self-acceptance by showing that self-forgiveness is a key goal for procrastinators Overall, REBT is effective in the treatment of procrastination</p> <p>First widely cited book written about procrastination was published by Albert Ellis and Bill Knaus in 1979</p> <p>Discussion and Conclusions</p> <p>The Procrastinator's Digest: A Concise Guide to Solving the Procrastination Puzzle by Timothy A. Pychyl, Ph.D.</p> <p>$16 paper on Amazon; $2.84 Kindle</p> <p>Homework</p> <p>ReferencesBackx, W. (2011). Views on REBT, past, present and future: Albert ellis' contribution to the field. Journal of Rational - Emotive &amp; Cognitive - Behavior Therapy, 29(4), 263-271. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-011-0142-4 Daniel, D., Szentagotai, A., Kallay, E., &amp; Macavei, B. (2005). A synopsis of rational-emotive behavior t herapy (REBT); fundamental and applied research. Journal of Rational - Emotive &amp; Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 23(3), 175-221. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-005-0011-0 Dryden, W., &amp; Sabelus, S. (2012). The perceived credibility of two rational emotive behavior therapy rationales for the treatment of academic procrastination. Journal of Rational - Emotive &amp; Cognitive - Behavior Therapy, 30(1), 1-24. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-010-0123-z Erford, B. T. (2010). Orientation to the counseling profession, advocacy, ethics, and essential professional foundations. Prentice Hall. Neenan, M. (2008). Tackling procrastination: An REBT perspective for coaches. Journal of Rational Emotive &amp; Cognitive - Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 53-62. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-007-00741 Pychyl, T. A., &amp; Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal Of Rational-Emotive &amp; Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203-212. doi:10.1007/s10942-012-0149-5</p>

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