Post on 12-Jan-2016




2 download

Embed Size (px)




<ul><li><p>ATTRIBUTIONS &amp; VALUES</p><p>ATTRIBUTION THEORY: TYPES OF ATTRIBUTIONS FUNCTIONS FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR Cultural and motivational factors ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS ROOTS OF THESE BIASES</p><p>INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON ATTRIBUTIONAL PROCESSES: LOCUS OF CONTROL RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM LOCUS, STABILITY AND CONTROLLABILITYEmotional effects ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLESPessimism, OptimismDifferentiating optimism from positive illusionsVALUES Schwartzs classification</p></li><li><p>ATTRIBUTION: </p><p>- finding, giving, explaining the cause of events </p><p>- very important type of cognition</p><p>- influenced by beliefs about the social world (e.g., power of context vs. internal factors)</p></li><li><p> Are we at the mercy of external forces or are the results of our actions under our own control?Whose fault?Whose merits?control, blame, fate, freedom </p></li><li><p>How much do you tend to agree/disagree with these statements?</p><p>There's no sense planning a lot - if something good is going to happen, it will. </p><p>The really good things that happen to me are mostly luck. </p><p>I am responsible for my own success.</p><p>I can do just about anything I really set my mind to.</p><p>Most of my problems are due to bad breaks. </p><p>I have little control over the bad things that happen to me. </p><p>My misfortunes are the result of mistakes I have made. </p><p>I am responsible for my failures. </p></li><li><p> We take the stand that there are always some alternative constructions available to choose among in dealing with the world. No one needs to paint himself into a corner; no one needs to be completely hemmed in by circumstances; no one needs to be the victim of his biography. We call this philosophical position constructive alternativism.</p><p>George Kelly (1955). "A Theory of personality."</p></li><li><p>Further, when you are powerless, you dont just speak differently. A lot of you dont speak. Your speech is not just differently articulated, it is silenced. Eliminated, gone. You arent just deprived of a language with which to articulate your distinctiveness, although you are; you are deprived of a life out of which articulation might come. </p><p>Catherine MacKinnon (1987). Difference and Dominance </p></li><li><p>BASIC FACTS ABOUT ATTRIBUTIONS</p></li><li><p>ATTRIBUTION THEORY: Studies the psychological processes behind how people ascribe causes to events (self and others).Nisbett &amp; Ross (1991). The person and the situation.</p><p>2 TYPES OF ATTRIBUTIONS:</p><p>Internal/Personal (cause is within the actor: personality, mood, ability, effort, wishes)</p><p>External/Situational(cause is outside the actor: other people, luck, pressure, $$$, weather)</p></li><li><p>What functions do attributions serve?help predict &amp; control environment</p><p>help determine self/other thoughts, feelings, &amp; behaviors</p><p>influence expectations for future</p><p>impact on own performance</p></li><li><p>When do we make attributions?unexpectede.g., driver runs a traffic light</p><p>negativee.g., bad test grade</p><p>events with uncertain causese.g., date doesnt call in weeks</p></li><li><p>FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR (FAE)Tendency for people (in Western cultures) to underestimate situational influences &amp; overestimate person influences on others behavior.</p></li><li><p>FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR &amp; CULTUREIndividualistic cultures focus on individual freedom, autonomy, &amp; choicefosters tendency to make person attributions (i.e., commit the FAE)</p><p>Collectivistic cultures focus on group memberships &amp; conformity to group normsfosters tendency to make situation attributions</p></li><li><p>Question for the class:</p><p>What factors (philosophy, religion, politics, economy) could be behind these cultural differences between US/Northern Europe and the rest of the world?</p><p>(Triandis, 1986) </p></li><li><p>TypeInternal vs.ExternalAttributionsSportsLOW COMPLEXITYEditorialsHIGH COMPLEXITY2.60-.09-1.22-2.50FAE &amp; CULTURE Lee, Hallahan, Herzog (1996)</p></li><li><p>FAE &amp; MOTIVATIONLee &amp; Hallahan (1998)</p><p>SituationalAttributionsIntended CareerPre-medPre-lawDoctor VignetteLawyer Vignette.20-.14-.21.18-.05.03Neither</p></li><li><p>ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS (AOB)Tendency to attribute ones own behavior to situational causes &amp; others behavior to person causes.</p></li><li><p>Some Cognitive &amp; Motivational Roots of FAE &amp; AOB:Perceptual Salience as observer, person doing behavior is most salient as actor, situation is most salient</p><p>People are Cognitive Misers generally less effort to make IA than to search for possible Eas</p><p>Self-Esteem Concerns allow people to feel good about themselves or their groups</p><p>People Seek a Coherent Understanding of the World by making IAs of others behavior we impose stability their behavior &amp; thus a sense of prediction &amp; control</p></li><li><p>INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON ATTRIBUTION</p></li><li><p>LOCUS OF CONTROL (Rotter, 1966)</p><p> External Locus: describes people who believe that fate, luck, or outside forces are responsible for what happens to them.</p><p> Internal Locus: describes people who believe that ability, effort, or their own actions determine what happens to them.</p><p>Locus of control influences which forces we hold responsible for our successes and failures --&gt; great influence on our motivation, expectations, self-esteem, risk-taking behavior, and even on the actual outcome of our actions. </p><p>ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEHEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORSOCIAL ACTIVISM </p></li><li><p>Illustrative Items from Rotters Internal-External Locus of Control Scale</p><p>Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are due partly to bad luck.</p><p>People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.</p><p>One of the major reasons we have wars is that people don't take enough interest in politics.</p><p>There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them.</p><p>Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give.</p><p>There is a direct connection between how hard I study and the grades I get.</p><p>The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions.</p><p>This world is run by the few people in power and there isn't much the little guy can do about it.</p></li><li><p> ORIGINS AND DYNAMICS OF LOCUS OF CONTROL?</p><p>(Bandura, 1977)</p><p>1 Beliefs affect behavior and environment 2 Behavior influences environment and beliefs 3 Environment influences behavior and beliefs </p></li><li><p>POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ACHIEVEMENT OUTCOMES ACCORDING TO LOCUS, STABILITY AND CONTROLLABILITY(Weiner, 1979)</p><p> INTERNAL</p><p> EXTERNAL</p><p>CONTROLLABILITY</p><p>Stable</p><p>Unstable</p><p>Stable</p><p>Unstable</p><p>Controllable</p><p>Typical effort</p><p>exerted</p><p>Temporary effort</p><p>exerted (for this particular task)</p><p>Some forms of teacher bias</p><p>Unusual help </p><p>from others</p><p>Uncontrollable</p><p>Ability</p><p>Mood</p><p>Task difficulty</p><p>Luck</p><p>EXAMPLE: Doing well/bad in Org Chemistry</p><p>Newest dimension ( GLOBALITY</p></li><li><p>Table 8.4: EMOTIONAL EFFECTS OF CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONNote: Only study this part of the table</p><p>ATTRIBUTION DIMENSION</p><p> OUTCOME </p><p> Success, positive Failure, negative</p><p>Internal</p><p>Pride, self-esteem</p><p>Low self-esteem, depression</p><p>Guilt (if temporary and/or controllable)</p><p>Shame (if enduring and/or controllable) </p><p>External</p><p>Gratitude (especially if controllable)</p><p>Resignation</p></li><li><p>ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLES (Peterson &amp; Seligman, 1984)</p><p>Optimistic: Failure is attributed to external, unstable, and specific causes and success to internal, stable, global causes.Pessimistic: Failure is attributed to internal, stable, global causes and success to external, unstable, and specific causes.</p><p>Is optimism always healthy?</p><p> Taylor &amp; Brown (1988): illusions of control and unrealistic optimism are associated with (+) mental health; realism may be a sign of depression</p><p>Colvin &amp; Block (1994): need to differentiate between healthy optimism (viewing new, uncertain events in a positive light) from positive illusions (viewing events in a positive light even when facts dont support that view)</p><p>Is pessimism always unhealthy?Defensive pessimism (Noren &amp; Cantor, 1986)</p></li><li><p>VALUES (Schwartz, 1992)</p><p>POWER: Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. (social power, authority, wealth, preserving my public image) </p><p>ACHIEVEMENT: Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. (successful, capable, ambitious, influential)</p><p>HEDONISM: Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself. (pleasure, enjoying life, self-indulgent) </p><p>STIMULATION: Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. (daring, a varied life, an exciting life) </p><p>SELFDIRECTION: Independent thought and actionchoosing, creating, exploring. (creativity, freedom, independent, curious, choosing own goals) </p><p>UNIVERSALISM: Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature. (broadminded, wisdom, social justice, equality, a world at peace, a world of beauty, unity with nature, protecting the environment) </p><p>BENEVOLENCE: Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact. (helpful, honest, forgiving, loyal, responsible) </p><p>TRADITION: Respect, commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self. (humble, accepting my portion in life, devout, respect for tradition, moderate) </p><p>CONFORMITY: Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. (politeness, obedient, self-discipline, honoring parents and elders)</p><p>SECURITY: Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. (family security, national security, social order, clean, reciprocation of favors)</p></li><li><p>VALUES (Schwartz, 1992)Self enhancementSelf transcendenceOpenness to changeConservation</p><p>Look at motivated attribution</p></li></ul>